Autism (sometimes called “classical autism”) is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, and unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests. Other ASDs include Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (usually referred to as PDD-NOS). Experts estimate that three to six children out of every 1,000 will have autism. Males are four times more likely to have autism than females.
Researchers from Tohoku University have now shown that the consolidation and extinction of contextual fear conditioning alter the microglial genes connected to the synapse—structures that permit neurons to communicate with one another.
According to a recent study, brain cells with the same “birthdate” are more likely to connect into cooperative signaling circuits that perform a variety of tasks, including memory storage.
The UCLA creators of a miniature microscope that can be mounted on the heads of lab animals to provide an invaluable view into the brain's inner workings have received a $4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop next-generation versions of their "miniscope."
In a first-of-its-kind blueprint, scientists have shown how stem cells mature into sensory interneurons, which are responsible for feelings including touch, pain, and itching.
A research group from MedUni Vienna’s Center for Brain Research has identified key cells that control data communication between parts of the brain.
A single gene that was previously discovered to be the main factor in a rare disease associated with epilepsy, autism, and developmental delay has been named as a key player in the development of healthy neurons.
For the first time, researchers have deciphered the atomic structure of a protein that transports one of the body’s most vital neurotransmitters into neurons.
Researchers at Tel Aviv University, led by Prof. Illana Gozes from the Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry at the Sackler Faculty of Medicine and the Sagol School of Neuroscience, have unraveled a mechanism shared by mutations in the genes ADNP and SHANK3, which cause autism, schizophrenia, and other conditions.
In a study published May 02, 2022 in Nature Communications, scientists at University of California San Diego School of Medicine used human brain organoids to reveal how a genetic mutation associated with a profound form of autism disrupts neural development.
Abnormalities in a type of brain cell called astrocytes may play a pivotal role in causing some behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorders, according to a preclinical study by Weill Cornell Medicine investigators.
The brain has the potential to change the way neurons communicate with one another. That is how it prevents out-of-control brain activity. Scientists have discovered a mechanism that plays a key role in this.
The cerebral ventricles—four linked cavities of the brain that are packed with cerebrospinal fluid—become enlarged in hydrocephalus, or “water on the brain;” however, the cause is unknown in many instances.
Researchers from a USC-led consortium have discovered 15 "hotspots" in the genome that either speed up brain aging or slow it down -; a finding that could provide new drug targets to resist Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative brain disorders, as well as developmental delays.
CHARGE syndrome, which affects approximately one in 10,000 newborns worldwide, is associated with neurological and behavioral conditions like intellectual disability, attention deficit disorder, convulsions, and autism.
A research team discovered that interruption of a circadian clock gene may be implicated in the formation of autism spectrum disorder.
New research may help scientists locate immature cells in the central nervous system that could shed light on the causes of neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis-;and autoimmune disease that affects the brain and nervous system-;and allow for the development of better therapeutic treatments.
Scientists have developed a powerful, inclusive new tool for genomic research that boosts efforts to develop more precise treatments for many diseases by leveraging a better representation of the genetic diversity of people around the world.
Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are known for eating up unwanted items like germs and debris, much as their counterparts do in the rest of the body.
Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the early precursors of the eggs (oocytes) and sperm that are necessary to keep humankind alive and reproducing.
Three members of a family of proteins have been identified that are important to helping us fine tune the activity of brain chemicals which enable us to walk or stand at will, scientists report.