Autism (sometimes called “classical autism”) is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction, problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, and unusual, repetitive, or severely limited activities and interests. Other ASDs include Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (usually referred to as PDD-NOS). Experts estimate that three to six children out of every 1,000 will have autism. Males are four times more likely to have autism than females.
In a study published May 02, 2022 in Nature Communications, scientists at University of California San Diego School of Medicine used human brain organoids to reveal how a genetic mutation associated with a profound form of autism disrupts neural development.
Abnormalities in a type of brain cell called astrocytes may play a pivotal role in causing some behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorders, according to a preclinical study by Weill Cornell Medicine investigators.
The brain has the potential to change the way neurons communicate with one another. That is how it prevents out-of-control brain activity. Scientists have discovered a mechanism that plays a key role in this.
The cerebral ventricles—four linked cavities of the brain that are packed with cerebrospinal fluid—become enlarged in hydrocephalus, or “water on the brain;” however, the cause is unknown in many instances.
Researchers from a USC-led consortium have discovered 15 "hotspots" in the genome that either speed up brain aging or slow it down -; a finding that could provide new drug targets to resist Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative brain disorders, as well as developmental delays.
CHARGE syndrome, which affects approximately one in 10,000 newborns worldwide, is associated with neurological and behavioral conditions like intellectual disability, attention deficit disorder, convulsions, and autism.
A research team discovered that interruption of a circadian clock gene may be implicated in the formation of autism spectrum disorder.
New research may help scientists locate immature cells in the central nervous system that could shed light on the causes of neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis-;and autoimmune disease that affects the brain and nervous system-;and allow for the development of better therapeutic treatments.
Scientists have developed a powerful, inclusive new tool for genomic research that boosts efforts to develop more precise treatments for many diseases by leveraging a better representation of the genetic diversity of people around the world.
Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are known for eating up unwanted items like germs and debris, much as their counterparts do in the rest of the body.
Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the early precursors of the eggs (oocytes) and sperm that are necessary to keep humankind alive and reproducing.
Three members of a family of proteins have been identified that are important to helping us fine tune the activity of brain chemicals which enable us to walk or stand at will, scientists report.
An international team of scientists has used atlases of the human brain informed by genetics to identify hundreds of genomic loci. Loci is plural for locus, and in genetics indicates the physical location of a gene or variant on a chromosome.
Autism spectrum disorder has been associated with hundreds of different genes, but how these distinct genetic mutations converge on a similar pathology in patients has remained a mystery.
Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by a wide range of behavioral issues.
Scientists discovered hundreds of proteins that are constantly transferred throughout the healthy brain in small membrane-enclosed sacs.
The capacity to examine large numbers of genomes is expensive and time-consuming, thus using genomics to uncover risk factors for major diseases is difficult.
Over the past decade, the CRISPR genome-editing system has revolutionized molecular biology, giving scientists the ability to alter genes inside living cells for research or medical applications. Now, researchers at Gladstone Institutes have fine-tuned an additional system for more efficient gene editing, using molecules called retrons.
Every day, the billions of bacteria that inhabit your digestive system change; the food you eat, medications you take, and germs you're exposed to make some bacteria flourish more than others.
We speak to Professor Trey Ideker and Yue Qin about their latest in cell biology and how artificial intelligence could be used to discover new components within cells.