Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 3, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 3 spans almost 200 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents approximately 6.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 3 likely contains between 1,100 and 1,500 genes.
Genes on chromosome 3 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Scientists from the John Innes Centre have identified a gene that has deep-rooted effects on seed production in wheat.
In 2020, a research team demonstrated that a significant genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection was inherited from Neanderthals.
Research has revealed that a part of DNA, which causes a almost three times higher risk of developing severe COVID-19, is inherited from Neanderthals.