Embryonic development or embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. It starts with the fertilization of the ovum, egg, which, after fertilization, is then called a zygote. The zygote undergoes rapid mitotic divisions, the formation of two exact genetic replicates of the original cell, with no significant growth (a process known as cleavage) and cellular differentiation, leading to development of an embryo.
Researchers have explained mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the embryonic stem cells in the most optimized state for use in regenerative medicine.
In the human population, males have one X and one Y chromosomes and females have two X chromosomes. As a result, somatic cells have unique mechanisms that maintain the same gene expression levels on the X chromosome between both genders.
One of the fundamental principles of biology is the fact that cells are motile and make contact with one another.
Biologists have long wondered how complex organisms contain a variety of dramatically different types of cells with specialized functions, even though all of those cells are genetically identical.
Prolonged exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the weedkiller Roundup causes significant harm to keystone species according to new research at the University of Birmingham.
Over two million babies, children, and adults in the United States are living with congenital heart disease--a range of birth defects affecting the heart's structure or function.
Research by Kai Jiao, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and in Germany has yielded fundamental insights into the causes of severe birth defects known as CHARGE syndrome cases. These congenital birth defects include severe and life-threatening heart malformations.
Cellular reprogramming can reverse the aging that leads to a decline in the activities and functions of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs).
Last year, researchers at the University of California, Riverside, identified the early origins of neural crest cells -- embryonic cells in vertebrates that travel throughout the body and generate many cell types -- in chick embryos.
Normal brain development requires a precise interplay between neuronal and non-neuronal (also called glial) cells. In a new study, researchers from the University of Tsukuba revealed how the loss of protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 causes disruptions in glial cells and affects proper brain development.
New University of Colorado Boulder-led research finds that the traits that make vertebrates distinct from invertebrates were made possible by the emergence of a new set of genes 500 million years ago, documenting an important episode in evolution where new genes played a significant role in the evolution of novel traits in vertebrates.
Professor Vanderhaeghen speaks to AZoLifeSciences about his teams research discovery on mitochondria, and their involvement during brain development.
How a valveless embryonic heart tube pumps blood is a long-standing scientific mystery. Thanks to innovations in light-based technology, fresh insights are now available into the biomechanics of mammalian cardiogenesis-;and in particular, the pumping dynamics of the mammalian tubular embryonic heart.
A research team at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin has explored the role of factors in embryonic development that do not alter the sequence of DNA, but only epigenetically modify its "packaging".
Researchers at the University of Colorado School of Medicine have discovered a protein in fruit fly embryos, dubbed Marie Kondo, that destroys maternal proteins.
When our neurons -- the principle cells of the brain -- die, so do we. Most neurons are created during embryonic development and have no "backup" after birth.
Cancer's knack for developing resistance to chemotherapy has long been a major obstacle to achieving lasting remissions or cures. While tumors may shrink soon after chemotherapy, many times they eventually grow back.
Whether white blood cells can be found in the brain has been controversial, and what they might be doing used to be complete mystery.
For years, stem cells have continued to have excellent potential in regenerative medicine.
Researchers from the University of Cambridge have devised a new model to analyze an early stage of human development through human embryonic stem cells.