Fluoride is a form of the element fluorine that helps prevent tooth decay. Fluoride may be naturally present in drinking water or may be added to it. Fluoride may also be put directly on the teeth, as a gel, toothpaste, or a rinse.
Baby seedling developing from the soil depth encounters a challenge—the downward push of gravity.
The interiors of nonflowering trees such as pine and ginkgo contain sapwood lined with straw-like conduits known as xylem, which draw water up through a tree's trunk and branches. Xylem conduits are interconnected via thin membranes that act as natural sieves, filtering out bubbles from water and sap.
For the first time, researchers from the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and the University of Tokyo in Japan have produced a new artificial transmembrane ion channel—based on a naturally found transmembrane channel that plays a role in neuron signaling—that reacts to both electrical and chemical stimuli.
The Nagoya University Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM) research team of Professor Cathleen Crudden, Designated Lecturer Masakazu Nambo, JSPS Postdoctoral Fellow Yuki Maekawa and Associate Professor Daisuke Yokogawa have developed a new synthesis method for the efficient production of fluorinated alkenes.
Oral bacteria are ready to spring into action the moment a dental hygienist finishes scraping plaque off a patient's teeth.