Myelin is the fatty substance that covers and protects nerves.
Most of us who've reached middle age have noticed a slowing in memory and cognition, but scientists don't have a clear picture of the molecular changes that take place in the brain to cause it.
In 1868, French physician Jean-Martin Charcot, known as the founder of modern neurology, defined a disease entity in which multiple plaques formed in the brain and spinal cord, with varying physical symptoms, called Sclérose en plaques, or in English as multiple sclerosis (MS).
Of all the known genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, the strongest is a gene for the protein called ApoE4.
Transplanting blood stem cells is a new but incredibly successful treatment for multiple sclerosis. Now, a study directed by the University of Zurich has looked closely at how the autoimmune disease is controlled by the treatment and how the immune system recovers afterward.
Tenascin C and Tenascin R, are two proteins that have been the topic of investigation at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Myelin sheaths, or the sheaths of the nerve cells, are destroyed by immune system cells in this condition.
New research may help scientists locate immature cells in the central nervous system that could shed light on the causes of neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis-;and autoimmune disease that affects the brain and nervous system-;and allow for the development of better therapeutic treatments.
Microscopes are chosen to be a helpful tool in biomedical research as they permit for close inspection and visualization of tissues.
A team of international researchers revealed that oligodendrocytes, a kind of central nervous system cell, may play a different function in the progression of MS.
A surprising discovery may offer a promising new direction in the study of multiple sclerosis and other diseases of hypomyelination – when axons of neurons are not covered sufficiently in fatty sheaths (myelin), which disrupts communication between nerve cells.
Scientists have found that the brain lacks the ability to maintain the cholesterol-rich myelin sheath that insulates neurons when a protein is absent.
New research works indicate that new brain cells are continuously formed in response to physical exercise, injury, and mental stimulation.
In his first year of graduate school, Rice University biochemist Zachary Wright discovered something hidden inside a common piece of cellular machinery that's essential for all higher order life from yeast to humans.
For the brain to work efficiently, it is important that a nerve impulse arrives at its destination as quickly and as precisely as possible. It has been long been known that the nerve fibres - also known as axons - pass on these impulses.
In laboratory experiments, a chemical compound found in the shell of the cashew nut promotes the repair of myelin, a team from Vanderbilt University Medical Center reports today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Across the globe, approximately 50 million people are living with dementia. The two most common forms are Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), which develop when neurons in specific parts of the brain stop functioning - triggering memory loss and other behavioral or personality changes.
Researchers at the University of Colorado School of Medicine have identified how specific brain cells interacting during development could be related to neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, including some that occur later in life.
The body's immune system can be re-wired to prevent it from recognizing its own proteins which, when attacked by the body, can cause autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, a significant new study by UK scientists has found.
Like subway com muters on a crowded train, cells generally prefer not to be packed in too tightly. In fact, they have set up mechanisms to avoid this, a phenomenon called "contact inhibition."
In the brains of people that suffer from long-term multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory cells are not entering the brain via the bloodstream anymore.
Researchers at the Stanford School of Engineering have designed a technique for reprogramming cells to use synthetic materials, which the team provides, to create artificial structures that can perform functions within the body.