In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
Inhibiting a tiny RNA whose levels significantly increase with age, along with problems like weaker bones and sagging muscles, may be a way to keep our bodies more youthful and healthy, scientists say.
UC Riverside scientists have significantly advanced the race to control plant responses to temperature on a rapidly warming planet.
Although it has long been believed that microRNA (miRNA) molecules in pancreatic islets play significant roles in Type 2 diabetes, no specific miRNAs have been definitively linked to the disease in humans.
Researchers from Nagoya University’s Graduate School of Medicine in Japan have uncovered how microRNA (miRNA) affects inflammation in mice with lupus. They discovered two downregulated miRNAs in the disease along with a rare circumstance where several miRNAs control the same set of genes.
Octopuses have captured the attention of scientists and the public with their remarkable intelligence, including the use of tools, engaging in creative play and problem-solving, and even escaping from aquariums.
microRNAs are thought to only suppress protein expression in dividing cells, such as tumor cells, and can contribute to the development of cancer.
According to research results published online ahead of print in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons (JACS), microRNA (miRNA) can be used as a biomarker to identify which individuals are most likely to experience breast cancer recurrence and mortality.
A novel method of reprogramming the immune cells to shrink or destroy cancer cells has been demonstrated to work in melanoma, a difficult to treat and destructive skin cancer.
Predicting clinical recovery of children with concussion is challenging. While concussion symptoms typically resolve within one to three weeks, up to one-third of children develop persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS), including headache, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision and sensitivity to light and/or sound.
Treatment with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR T cells) is often the last hope for patients with lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or certain kinds of leukemia.
The cancer type cholangiocarcinoma, often known as bile duct cancer, is characterized by a high fatality rate.
Scientists from the University of Notre Dame have found a new way for tumor cells to transmit genetic material to other cells in their microenvironment, allowing cancer to spread.
During infection, the yeast Candida albicans stimulates the release of tiny RNA fragments, which then stimulate its own growth.
microRNAs (miRNA), non-coding RNA molecules, are widely known for regulating mRNA stability and translation. miR-10b has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of gliomas, cancers of the brain.
Nanomaterials have transformed cancer therapy, and plant-derived nanoparticles have the added benefit of being cost-effective and simple to produce in mass.
Moles and melanomas are both skin tumors that come from the same cell called melanocytes. The difference is that moles are usually harmless, while melanomas are cancerous and often deadly without treatment.
In type 2 diabetes, the modified function of the red blood cells causes vascular damage.
Nearly half of our DNA has been written off as junk, the discards of evolution: sidelined or broken genes, viruses that got stuck in our genome and were dismembered or silenced, none of it relevant to the human organism or human evolution.
Cells in the body work together, similar to an ant colony or even people in an office achieve the tasks.
Researchers from HSE University have discovered nucleotide sequences characteristic of microRNA isoforms (microRNAs with errors).