In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
Treatment with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR T cells) is often the last hope for patients with lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or certain kinds of leukemia.
The cancer type cholangiocarcinoma, often known as bile duct cancer, is characterized by a high fatality rate.
Scientists from the University of Notre Dame have found a new way for tumor cells to transmit genetic material to other cells in their microenvironment, allowing cancer to spread.
During infection, the yeast Candida albicans stimulates the release of tiny RNA fragments, which then stimulate its own growth.
microRNAs (miRNA), non-coding RNA molecules, are widely known for regulating mRNA stability and translation. miR-10b has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of gliomas, cancers of the brain.
Nanomaterials have transformed cancer therapy, and plant-derived nanoparticles have the added benefit of being cost-effective and simple to produce in mass.
Moles and melanomas are both skin tumors that come from the same cell called melanocytes. The difference is that moles are usually harmless, while melanomas are cancerous and often deadly without treatment.
In type 2 diabetes, the modified function of the red blood cells causes vascular damage.
Nearly half of our DNA has been written off as junk, the discards of evolution: sidelined or broken genes, viruses that got stuck in our genome and were dismembered or silenced, none of it relevant to the human organism or human evolution.
Cells in the body work together, similar to an ant colony or even people in an office achieve the tasks.
Researchers from HSE University have discovered nucleotide sequences characteristic of microRNA isoforms (microRNAs with errors).
A research team from Brazil and Portugal has identified a link between a microRNA (miRNA) and the presence of lead in an organism.
A research team from Italy has discovered a pair of microRNA molecules that assist in maintaining a population of cancerous stem cells that fuel the growth of breast cancers and trigger tumor relapse after treatment.
The second most common neurodegenerative disorder is Parkinson’s disease, but despite this, not much is known about the causes of this condition.
Imagine trying to throw a bullseye when the dartboard lies buried within a crumpled box. That's the challenge faced by scientists working to make new medicines for some "undruggable" diseases, including a type of metastatic breast cancer.
Scientists have deigned a new method to inhibit a toxicity observed in the sensory neurons of DRG following gene therapy to treat neurological diseases.
Finding just the right model to study human development--from the early embryonic stage onward--has been a challenge for scientists over the last decade.
Why does exercise training make you more fit? It's well established that exercising enhances insulin sensitivity and improves our metabolism that, in turn, increases exercise performance. But the biological mechanisms underlying this adaptation are not fully understood.
When a person suffers a heart attack, parts of the heart can become stiff and scarred, leading to disability and possible progression toward heart failure.
In a new study published in Cell Research, Chen-Yu Zhang's group at Nanjing University School of Life Sciences, China, reports that SIDT1 in the mammalian stomach mediates host uptake of dietary and orally administered microRNAs (miRNAs), thus exerting biological functions in the host.