Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into an organic compound. Deacetylation is the removal of the acetyl group.
The Gerlich Group at the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA) has identified a molecular process that gives chromosomes in dividing human cells unique physical characteristics that permit faithful transmission to the progeny.
Animals often use highly specific signals to warn their herd about approaching predators. Surprisingly, similar behaviors are also observed among plants.
A*STAR’s GIS and ID Labs have discovered KCNJ15, a gene linked to the human immune system’s ability to combat TB and maybe other infectious diseases.
Plants are tied to one location and need to adjust to their environment, including adverse conditions. Adaptive responses include synthesizing new proteins and breaking down those that are no longer needed.
Humans have a huge and intricately folded neocortex, the reason for various intellectual abilities, setting apart humans from all other species.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated death in the United States and worldwide. Patients with a subtype called lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) have benefited from the development of new targeted medicines, but the search for effective new therapies for another subtype called lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has largely come up short.
In the human population, males have one X and one Y chromosomes and females have two X chromosomes. As a result, somatic cells have unique mechanisms that maintain the same gene expression levels on the X chromosome between both genders.
A new study shows that proteins called IAPs, which can trigger programmed cell death, are inhibited by a specific chemical modification, and reveals that they play a wider role in protein quality control than previously assumed.
Researchers have developed a mathematical model to quantitatively assess the impacts of particular epigenetic changes on the transcription rates.
A key way radiation therapy and chemotherapy work is by making highly lethal double-strand breaks in the DNA of cancer cells.
New findings suggest that late-onset Alzheimer's Disease is driven by epigenetic changes -- how and when certain genes are turned on and off -- in the brain. Results were published today in Nature Genetics.
Scientists have recently demonstrated that acetyl-CoA connects mitochondrial stress to the nuclear epigenome through the NuRD complex.
Proteins are the workers in a cell and, as the "basic element of life", are responsible for the most widely varying metabolic processes.
Biology students and faculty members from The University of Texas at El Paso have discovered a new target for tuberculosis drug development.
Scientists have identified an enzymatic activity towards common drugs as well as significant human endogenous substrates, that was previously not known.
Sometimes proteins misfold. When that happens in the human brain, the pileup of misfolded proteins can lead to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and ALS.
A minute chemical modification on one of the most copious and vital proteins in cells—actin—has been a mystery as its function is not fully known.