In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
In a new approach to conservation genetics, researchers used a high-quality genome of the coral Acropora millepora, along with environmental data, to study this coral's variable responses to climate change, a trait of key conservation importance.
Researchers have effectively edited RNA in a living creature such that the repaired RNA subsequently rectified a mutation in a protein that leads to Rett syndrome—a debilitating neurological disorder that affects people.
Massive blocks of genes--inherited together 'plug and play' style--may play a larger role in evolutionary adaption than previously thought, according to new research in Nature.
An over-abundance of the protein PRC1, which is essential to cell division, is a telltale sign in many cancer types, including prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer.
Researchers have discovered that a living cell’s system meant for avoiding genetic damage can fail so much that it would be better off without it.
Cellular waste disposal, where autophagy and lysosomes interact, performs elementary functions, such as degrading damaged protein molecules, which impair cellular function, and reintroducing the resulting building blocks such as amino acids into the metabolic system.
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have identified a novel protein complex that regulates Aurora B localization to ensure that chromosomes are correctly separated during cell division.
Scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute have found that increased activity of a normal metabolic enzyme can lead to cancer.
Scientists have discovered a major mechanism in the inactivation of X chromosomes, an event that may hold clues to develop treatments for congenital disorders.
According to a study, the 3D structure of the human genome is fundamental to provide a quick and strong inflammatory response.
Knowing what cancer will do next could lessen the likelihood of it becoming resistant to treatment. A new Canadian study investigates how cancer adapts its metabolism to potentially overcome therapies still in development.
InsideOutBio expert Dr Alan Herbert has explained a pioneering research in a paper recently published online by the Royal Society Open Science journal.
New images of an enzyme in action as it interacts with the chromosome could provide important insight into how cells--including cancer cells--regulate their genes.
For nearly a century, biologists have modeled the evolution of sex chromosomes--the genetic instructions that primarily determine whether an individual will develop into a male or female (or a certain mating type)--resulting in an impressive theoretical framework.
Whilst we often think of somatic cells in an organism as containing the same DNA and therefore the same number of chromosomes, it is surprising, how often this is not the case.
The process of cells being infected by HIV-1 strains is widely known to undergo many stages.
Genetic engineering of bacteria has transformed contemporary medicine, from bacterial-based insulin to a deeper insight into infectious diseases.
As chromosomes go, X and Y make an unlikely pair. The X is large and contains thousands of genes critical for life.
The CRISPR/Cas molecular scissors work like a fine surgical instrument and can be used to modify genetic information in plants.
A sequencing technique helps to map the spatial arrangement of DNA in the cell nucleus, revealing which regions of the genome are at greater risk of mutation.