In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
A toxin produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism causes mutations in target bacteria that could help them survive, according to a study published today in eLife.
Several plant pathogens belong to the genus Verticillium and affect many different plant hosts.
In 2020, a research team demonstrated that a significant genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection was inherited from Neanderthals.
A study reveals the genetic factors that may expose or protect people with Down syndrome from SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the prognosis of COVID-19.
Thanks to innovative algorithms and developments in computer technology, machines can currently learn complicated structures and even produce high-quality synthetic data, like photo-realistic images as well as resumes of fictional human beings.
Flaws in the way chromosomes are packed into antibody-producing B-cells seem to play a key role in the development of B-cell-related blood cancers.
Pathogenic bacteria in humans are developing resistance to antibiotics much faster than expected. Now, computational research at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, shows that one reason could be significant genetic transfer between bacteria in our ecosystems and to humans. This work has also led to new tools for resistance researchers.
Scientists have created a new method to precisely differentiate between data from a wide range of normal cells and cancer cells found inside tumor samples.
The sex chromosomes genetically define the developmental fate of an embryo to become a male or a female individual, and usually, appear as one pair of morphologically different chromosomes between sexes.
Often considered the world's oddest mammal, Australia's beaver-like, duck-billed platypus exhibits an array of bizarre characteristics: it lays eggs instead of giving birth to live babies, sweats milk, has venomous spurs and is even equipped with 10 sex chromosomes.
Starting as a single cell, organisms undergo millions of generations of divisions to ultimately generate the bones, heart, brain and other components that make up a living being. The mainspring within this intricate process is the transfer of DNA through each subsequent cell split within discrete packets called chromosomes.
Cancer cells are known for spreading genetic chaos. As cancer cells divide, DNA segments and even whole chromosomes can be duplicated, mutated, or lost altogether.
Cancer is one of the world's greatest health afflictions because, unlike some diseases, it is a moving target, constantly evolving to evade and resist treatment.
Damien D'Amours and his team at the Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology needed three years to discover the molecular defects associated with the LIC Syndrome, a serious genetic disorder that affects young children and result in acute respiratory distress, immune deficiency and abnormal chromosomes.
AZoLifeSciences speaks to Dr. Terry Hasssold about his latest research into oocytes and how imperfect egg cells are more common than scientists initially thought.
Scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles have discovered a promising diagnostic marker that may help predict the response of cervical cancer patients to standard radiation and chemotherapy treatments.
A research team has used a novel method that could help resolve the issue of unnecessary genetic changes encountered in the CRISPR-Cas9 technique.
Telomeres are essentially specialized structures that are located at the end of chromosomes. These structures ensure a healthy cell division.
In a paper published Wednesday, Nov. 25, in Nature, Kansas State University researchers, in collaboration with the international 10+ Genome Project led by the University of Saskatchewan.
A variety of bread wheat that flourishes across Switzerland would remain just a poorly growing grass in India.