In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Hereditary diseases, along with cancers and cardiovascular diseases, may be linked to genomic imprinting.
Previously, researchers from Tianjin University designed and created a 254 kb digital data carrying artificial chromosome in yeast.
A team of researchers at the George Washington University has identified a gene that determines whether ultraviolet iridescence shows up in the wings of butterflies.
Humans are all made of collections of cells, where each cell contains instructions in the DNA to become another cell.
In 2019, the WHO positioned chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) third in the global ranking of causes of death.
Recent research carried out by scientists from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) reveals that a significant player in the healthy development of female embryos also performs a vital role in controlling the behavior of chromosome loops and gene expression in both sexes.
Researchers from the Francis Crick Institute along with the University of Kent utilized gene-editing technology to produce male-only and female-only mice litter with 100% efficacy.
Recent research reveals how genetic variations associated with severe cases of COVID-19 impact the immune cells.
Scientists are a step closer to breeding plants with genes from only one parent. New research led by plant biologists at the University of California, Davis, published Nov. 19 in Science Advances, shows the underlying mechanism behind eliminating half the genome and could make for easier and more rapid breeding of crop plants with desirable traits such as disease resistance.
Cell division is a vital mechanism underlying biological growth and repair.
One factor that limits the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures is the number of viable embryos available for implantation in the uterus.
In this interview, we speak to Dr. Miguel J. Xavier about his latest research into male infertility and how de novo mutations may play a part.
When the pro-inflammatory pair, a receptor called CCR2 and its ligand CCL-2, get together, it increases the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, scientists report.
Scientists from the University of Virginia School of Medicine have identified how a common gene mutation deprives people of natural protection against cancer.
Scientists from the John Innes Centre have identified a gene that has deep-rooted effects on seed production in wheat.
New work led by Carnegie's Kangmei Zhao and Sue Rhee reveals a new mechanism by which plants are able to rapidly activate defenses against bacterial infections.
Scientists from Rutgers University linked the genetic disorders Fragile X and SHANK3 deletion syndrome to walking patterns.
Researchers from Estonia and Italy developed an innovative method by combining neural networks and statistics. Using this newly developed method, they refined the "Out of Africa" scenario. The researchers claimed that the African dynamics around the time of the Out of Africa expansion are more complex than previously thought.
Using supercomputer-driven dynamic modeling based on experimental data, researchers can now probe the process that turns off one X chromosome in female mammal embryos.
An international collaboration has discovered and transferred to elite wheat varieties a wild-grass chromosome segment that causes roots to secrete natural inhibitors of nitrification, offering a way to dial back on heavy fertilizer use for wheat and to reduce the crop's nitrogen leakage into waterways and air, while maintaining or raising its productivity and grain quality, says a new report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.