Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Unraveling sex determination in Bursaphelenchus nematodes: A path towards pest-control

Unraveling sex determination in Bursaphelenchus nematodes: A path towards pest-control

Researchers shed light on an exclusive healthy cereal - oats

Researchers shed light on an exclusive healthy cereal - oats

Digging into the DNA of finger millet to improve the grain's yield and quality

Digging into the DNA of finger millet to improve the grain's yield and quality

Study shows how key cause of cancer growth in cell formation may lead to prevention

Study shows how key cause of cancer growth in cell formation may lead to prevention

Extra copies of DNA explain insensitivity to chemotherapy in germ cell cancer

Extra copies of DNA explain insensitivity to chemotherapy in germ cell cancer

Researchers may have identified a key intermediate in the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes

Researchers may have identified a key intermediate in the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes

Max Planck researchers reveal the structure of kinetochore corona

Max Planck researchers reveal the structure of kinetochore corona

Single-molecule analysis to study how tetraploid cells replicate DNA from diploid cells

Single-molecule analysis to study how tetraploid cells replicate DNA from diploid cells

Researchers discover how an “accordion effect” is vital for switching off genes

Researchers discover how an “accordion effect” is vital for switching off genes

Researchers discover 15 genetic 'hotspots' that speed up or slow down brain aging

Researchers discover 15 genetic 'hotspots' that speed up or slow down brain aging

Biologists unravel the mystery behind nuclear anomaly in blood cancer cells

Biologists unravel the mystery behind nuclear anomaly in blood cancer cells

Scientists produce the first complete, gapless sequence of a human genome

Scientists produce the first complete, gapless sequence of a human genome

RNA targeted by small molecule drugs, likely to create new pathways for disease treatment

RNA targeted by small molecule drugs, likely to create new pathways for disease treatment

Researchers show how proteins form DNA-repair mechanism in living bacteria

Researchers show how proteins form DNA-repair mechanism in living bacteria

Study explores that extra dosages of genes may lead to surplus X chromosomes

Study explores that extra dosages of genes may lead to surplus X chromosomes

Researchers discover abnormal gene mutations that lead to cancer development

Researchers discover abnormal gene mutations that lead to cancer development

Genetic rat model shows robust Down syndrome features

Genetic rat model shows robust Down syndrome features

Researchers combine ancient art and genetics to reveal origin of saffron

Researchers combine ancient art and genetics to reveal origin of saffron

Researchers decode complex potato genomes to accelerate the breeding of robust varieties

Researchers decode complex potato genomes to accelerate the breeding of robust varieties

Risk variant of COVID-19 decreases risk of contracting HIV by 27%

Risk variant of COVID-19 decreases risk of contracting HIV by 27%