In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Telomeres are essentially specialized structures that are located at the end of chromosomes. These structures ensure a healthy cell division.
In a paper published Wednesday, Nov. 25, in Nature, Kansas State University researchers, in collaboration with the international 10+ Genome Project led by the University of Saskatchewan.
A variety of bread wheat that flourishes across Switzerland would remain just a poorly growing grass in India.
An international research team has sequenced the full genome of an ornamental variety of miscanthus, a wild perennial grass emerging as a prime candidate for sustainable bioenergy crops.
Scientists have reported the first strong evidence of the role of HLA-B, a crucial histocompatibility complex gene, in penicillin allergy.
The lack of some genes in the BEC/TCEAL cluster could be related to some alterations associated with the autism spectrum disorder, according to a preclinical study published in the journal Genome Biology, and led by Professor Jordi Garcia Fernàndez, from the Faculty of Biology and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB), and researcher Jaime Carvajal, from the Andalusian Centre for Developmental Biology - University Pablo de Olavide (CSIC-UPO).
Banyan trees are fig trees that begin their life as an epiphyte. The most noticeable feature of banyan Ficus species is their extraordinary aerial roots, which enable them to live as hemi-epiphytes, as do the strangler figs often seen in tropical forests.
The exchange of DNA between chromosomes during the early formation of sperm and egg cells normally is limited to assure fertility.
A new study from researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center has discovered that mutations found in cancers do not accumulate randomly, but are found in distinct patterns that vary based on the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the cell as well as the underlying factors causing the mutations.
Researchers have identified a new piece of DNA that is crucial for the formation of male sex organs. This discovery may require the revisal of biology textbooks.
Research has revealed that a part of DNA, which causes a almost three times higher risk of developing severe COVID-19, is inherited from Neanderthals.
Scientists have a shed new light on a little-known role of Y chromosome genes, which are specific to men.
For the first time, researchers have discovered how antibiotic resistance genes are spreading, at a continental scale, via bacterial plasmids in the hospital superbug, Klebsiella pneumoniae.
In 1997, the very first Neandertal DNA sequence - just a small part of the mitochondrial genome - was determined from an individual discovered in the Neander Valley, Germany, in 1856.
The genomes of all higher life forms are stored in the cell nucleus on chromosomes. Chromosomes are composed of strands of the DNA molecule.
Interpreting the particular mutations that play a role in different forms of cancer is crucial to enhance diagnosis and treatment.
Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital are investigating the inherited genetics of childhood leukemia and how particular gene variations can affect treatment outcomes. The research showed that an inherited variation in the GATA3 gene strongly influences early response to chemotherapy and is linked to relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
A new study has unraveled a genetic vulnerability that exists in almost 10% of all breast cancer tumors.
The evolution of sex chromosomes is of crucial importance in biology as it stabilises the mechanism underlying sex determination and usually results in an equal sex ratio.
Bacterial speck disease, which reduces both fruit yield and quality, has been a growing problem in tomatoes over the last five years.