In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
An international collaboration has discovered and transferred to elite wheat varieties a wild-grass chromosome segment that causes roots to secrete natural inhibitors of nitrification, offering a way to dial back on heavy fertilizer use for wheat and to reduce the crop's nitrogen leakage into waterways and air, while maintaining or raising its productivity and grain quality, says a new report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
A comparison of the genomes of strains of the cacao tree has offered insights into the role genomic structural variants play in the regulation of gene expression.
The accomplishment of the ambitious goal of the Human Genome Project, mapping the entire human genome, made the impression that the world was disembarking an era of personalized medicine, where evidence from one’s own specific genetic material would provide the care.
Scientists have discovered a new centromeric functional protein and dubbed it Adaptor of polo1 (Apolo1). The findings of the study were reported in Cell Reports.
A new study has unraveled a causal gene (Necdin, NDN) in autism model mice that exhibit the chromosomal abnormality known as copy number variation.
Mitosis, the mechanism of cell division, is an age-old process. Yet, the process has not been fully understood or replicated.
Olives, well-known for their characteristic bitter taste, are in high demand owing to the popularity of the oil that's derived from them.
Proper chromosome segregation into two future daughter cells requires the mitotic spindle to elongate in anaphase. However, although some candidate proteins are implicated in this process, the molecular mechanism that drives spindle elongation in human cells has been unknown, until now!
In a recent study led by UCL researchers, the mass of human chromosomes was quantified using X-rays for the first time.
Australian scientists have found what could prove to be a new and effective way to treat a particularly aggressive blood cancer in children.
CRISPR technology enables researchers to edit genomes by modifying DNA sequences and hence gene function.
Inside the nuclei of cells, the genome is tightly organized (packaged). This three-dimensional (3D) genome organization is basic because it controls gene expression.
Following the p53 tumor suppressor gene, the genes encoding two proteins of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are the most often identified mutated.
A lot of biological mechanisms go wrong in cancer—for example genes mutate and cells proliferate in an uncontrollable manner.
In this interview, AZoLifeSciences speaks to Professor Parwinder Kaur about her latest research that uses genomic analysis for the conservation of koalas.
According to recent findings, the genome of single-celled plankton, called dinoflagellates, is arranged in an extremely unusual and strange manner. The study results set the foundations for further research into these vital aquatic species and significantly broaden the understanding of what a eukaryotic genome can look like.
According to a new study, targeting a pathway that is critical for the survival of some cases of acute myeloid leukemia could open up a new therapeutic route for patients.
A single-celled alga removes non-essential pieces by undergoing genome surgery.
A new study explains an effort to create the most detailed and high-resolution map of gene regulation and chromosome architecture in yeast organisms.
A research team has discovered a new role of ADAR1 and found that the ADAR1p110 isoform controls genome stability at the ends of chromosomes.