Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Growing wheat endowed with biological nitrification inhibition raises productivity, quality

Growing wheat endowed with biological nitrification inhibition raises productivity, quality

Genomic structural variant analysis provides clues on plant diversity

Genomic structural variant analysis provides clues on plant diversity

Study analyzes genetic means to accomplish personalized medicine

Study analyzes genetic means to accomplish personalized medicine

Study unravels novel centromeric functional protein

Study unravels novel centromeric functional protein

Study reveals causal gene in autism model mice with copy number variation

Study reveals causal gene in autism model mice with copy number variation

Kinetochore modeling could help create artificial chromosomes

Kinetochore modeling could help create artificial chromosomes

Molecular breeding can enhance the quality of olives

Molecular breeding can enhance the quality of olives

Study reveals the key role of motor proteins in mitotic spindle elongation

Study reveals the key role of motor proteins in mitotic spindle elongation

Study measures the mass of human chromosomes using X-rays for the first time

Study measures the mass of human chromosomes using X-rays for the first time

Researchers discover a new, effective way to treat aggressive blood cancer in children

Researchers discover a new, effective way to treat aggressive blood cancer in children

New software tool detects, evaluates, and quantifies off-target editing activity

New software tool detects, evaluates, and quantifies off-target editing activity

Three-dimensional organization of genome is extremely dynamic during gamete formation

Three-dimensional organization of genome is extremely dynamic during gamete formation

Study shows that inactivation of BRG1 leads to high genetic instability

Study shows that inactivation of BRG1 leads to high genetic instability

Cancer cells re-organize DNA structure to ramp up the activity of oncogenes

Cancer cells re-organize DNA structure to ramp up the activity of oncogenes

Genomic Analysis for the Conservation of Koalas

Genomic Analysis for the Conservation of Koalas

Researchers study the unique genomic organization of coral symbionts

Researchers study the unique genomic organization of coral symbionts

New therapeutic target for patients with acute myeloid leukemia

New therapeutic target for patients with acute myeloid leukemia

New “genome scalpel” can rapidly trim microalgal genomes

New “genome scalpel” can rapidly trim microalgal genomes

High-resolution map of yeast genome can shed light on development responses in higher organisms

High-resolution map of yeast genome can shed light on development responses in higher organisms

ADAR1 protein offers a potential therapeutic target for cancer

ADAR1 protein offers a potential therapeutic target for cancer