Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Scientists Discover Fossils of Ancient Chromosomes in the Remains of Woolly Mammoth

Scientists Discover Fossils of Ancient Chromosomes in the Remains of Woolly Mammoth

Understanding How Motorized Processes Shape Chromosome Structures and Influence Cellular Functions

Understanding How Motorized Processes Shape Chromosome Structures and Influence Cellular Functions

One Size Doesn't Fit All: Study Reveals Stark Sex Differences in Mitochondrial Activity

One Size Doesn't Fit All: Study Reveals Stark Sex Differences in Mitochondrial Activity

Genomic Insights into Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Broccoli

Genomic Insights into Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Broccoli

First Evidence of Oocyte Cohesion Rejuvenation Discovered in Fruit Flies

First Evidence of Oocyte Cohesion Rejuvenation Discovered in Fruit Flies

Study Uncovers Link Between Genetic Variants and Mosaic Loss of X Chromosome in Aging Women

Study Uncovers Link Between Genetic Variants and Mosaic Loss of X Chromosome in Aging Women

New research identifies and mitigates bias in CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing

New research identifies and mitigates bias in CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing

Determining Sex in Ants

Determining Sex in Ants

Genetic Clues Unveil New Insights into Restless Leg Syndrome

Genetic Clues Unveil New Insights into Restless Leg Syndrome

Study Unveils Key Mechanism of Telomere Maintenance by CST–Polα/Primase

Study Unveils Key Mechanism of Telomere Maintenance by CST–Polα/Primase

Researchers Identify Molecular Stop Signal in Cell Division Monitoring

Researchers Identify Molecular Stop Signal in Cell Division Monitoring

Deciphering the Genetic Basis of Bayberry Fruit Quality

Deciphering the Genetic Basis of Bayberry Fruit Quality

New Insights Into Centromere Structure: Two Subdomains Revealed

New Insights Into Centromere Structure: Two Subdomains Revealed

Researchers Uncover New Genetic Mutation Linked to Rare Form of Congenital Thyroid Abnormality

Researchers Uncover New Genetic Mutation Linked to Rare Form of Congenital Thyroid Abnormality

Genetic Insights: Safflower Genome Assembly Unlocks Key Traits for Crop Improvement

Genetic Insights: Safflower Genome Assembly Unlocks Key Traits for Crop Improvement

Genome Assemblies of Musa ornata and Musa velutina Unveil Insights Into Banana Biology

Genome Assemblies of Musa ornata and Musa velutina Unveil Insights Into Banana Biology

Genetic Link to Persistent HPV Infections Identified

Genetic Link to Persistent HPV Infections Identified

Study Reveals Genetic Underpinnings for Cervical Cancer Risk from Persistent HPV Infections

Study Reveals Genetic Underpinnings for Cervical Cancer Risk from Persistent HPV Infections

Different Chromosomes Found to Have Separate End-Specific Telomere-Length Distributions

Different Chromosomes Found to Have Separate End-Specific Telomere-Length Distributions

Understanding Prostate Cancer Disparities Through Proteogenomics

Understanding Prostate Cancer Disparities Through Proteogenomics

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