In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
The mechanisms underlying sex determination in nematodes, commonly known as roundworms, have not been fully understood.
Oats are a worldwide crop. It currently ranks seventh in cereal production. In comparison to other cereals, oats cultivation needs fewer insecticides, fungicides, and fertilizer treatments.
The grain called finger millet may not be well-known outside of Africa, but it is an important crop to the region.
The University of Warwick’s research gives fresh information on a major cause of cancer growth during cell division (or mitosis), as well as potential treatments for avoiding it.
Extra copies of a piece of DNA partly explain insensitivity to chemotherapy in germ cell cancer, a new study shows.
All modern organisms fall into two classes, eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Eukaryotes (from the Greek meaning "true kernel") have a cell nucleus that harbors most of the cell's genetic information and includes organisms such as humans, plants and fungi.
During cell division in a mother cell, the 23 chromosomes that carry the human genome must be first copied and later delivered to two newly forming daughter cells.
Human cells have two sets of chromosomes (diploid). It is possible, however, that cells have a tetraploid (quadruple) set.
In a study that changes the fundamentals of what researchers know about gene silencing, WEHI researchers demonstrated how an “accordion effect” is key to switching off genes.
Researchers from a USC-led consortium have discovered 15 "hotspots" in the genome that either speed up brain aging or slow it down -; a finding that could provide new drug targets to resist Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative brain disorders, as well as developmental delays.
The mystery is being unraveled of why the control centers, or nuclei, of certain blood cancer cells have a distinctly odd shape.
Two decades after the Human Genome Project delivered the first preliminary human genome sequence, researchers have published the first full, gapless sequence of a human genome.
RNA (ribonucleic acid) is involved in many aspects of human health, and a new study published in the journal Nature provides compelling evidence that RNA could be a promising pharmacological target.
Two recent research have shown a completely new perspective of how bacterial cells repair broken parts of their DNA (lesions).
One out of every 500 to 1,000 boys is born with one or more extra X chromosomes, which can cause a variety of symptoms as the extra chromosomes to including infertility, larger breasts, osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiac problems, intellectual incapacity, and cancer.
The reason why the control centers, or nuclei, of certain blood cancer cells, have a peculiar structure is still a mystery.
In pursuit of better ways to test new therapies and further explore the impacts of the unique genetics associated with Down syndrome, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine and Tottori University in Japan have genetically engineered and characterized what is believed to be the first rat model of Down syndrome.
Saffron is the costliest spice in the world and is extracted from the flowers of saffron crocus—Crocus sativus.
Scientists have decoded the highly complicated genome of the potato for the first time after over 20 years since the first release of the human genome.
Human’s inherent genetic variants can increase or decrease the risk of getting sick with COVID-19.