Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Revealing the mechanism that ensures genome stability in normal cells

Revealing the mechanism that ensures genome stability in normal cells

Newly developed tool helps snip out faulty genes in a safe manner

Newly developed tool helps snip out faulty genes in a safe manner

RNA-targeting strategy to repair the genetic cause of ALS and dementia

RNA-targeting strategy to repair the genetic cause of ALS and dementia

The genetic mechanisms that induce protein decline in modern maize

The genetic mechanisms that induce protein decline in modern maize

New study figures out which patients will react to immunotherapy

New study figures out which patients will react to immunotherapy

HIV’s covert methods of evading treatment and immunity

HIV’s covert methods of evading treatment and immunity

Newly sequenced Honeycrisp apple genome could be a boon for scientists and breeders

Newly sequenced Honeycrisp apple genome could be a boon for scientists and breeders

New explanation for how chromosome recombination is regulated during sexual reproduction

New explanation for how chromosome recombination is regulated during sexual reproduction

High-quality chromosome-level reference genome for A. gigantea

High-quality chromosome-level reference genome for A. gigantea

Genetic speciation method to make new hybrid species

Genetic speciation method to make new hybrid species

Insights into the evolution of banana domestication

Insights into the evolution of banana domestication

Genome of domesticated banana varieties contains traces of three unknown ancestors

Genome of domesticated banana varieties contains traces of three unknown ancestors

Research team outlines three-step technique that lets human body defend against Hep B

Research team outlines three-step technique that lets human body defend against Hep B

Genome of the earliest common ancestor of all mammals identified

Genome of the earliest common ancestor of all mammals identified

Understanding the structure of the nucleus inside a cell using mathematics

Understanding the structure of the nucleus inside a cell using mathematics

Chromosome restructuring suppresses meiotic recombination

Chromosome restructuring suppresses meiotic recombination

Adaptive optics imaging helps visualize the pathogenesis of choroideremia

Adaptive optics imaging helps visualize the pathogenesis of choroideremia

Using the genomes of wild tomato relatives to improve tomato

Using the genomes of wild tomato relatives to improve tomato

Study provides insight into how birds decide their sex

Study provides insight into how birds decide their sex

New genome within the tomato family revealed

New genome within the tomato family revealed