Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Interbacterial toxins may contribute to bacterial genetic diversity

Interbacterial toxins may contribute to bacterial genetic diversity

Fungal hybridization confers greater adaptive potential in Verticillium longisporum

Fungal hybridization confers greater adaptive potential in Verticillium longisporum

Study reveals a major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19

Study reveals a major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19

Study reveals genetic factors linked to COVID-19 susceptibility in people with Down syndrome

Study reveals genetic factors linked to COVID-19 susceptibility in people with Down syndrome

Machine learning techniques help create real genomes for imaginary humans

Machine learning techniques help create real genomes for imaginary humans

Genome architectural changes linked to B cell-related blood cancers

Genome architectural changes linked to B cell-related blood cancers

Antibiotic resistance may be spreading much faster than expected

Antibiotic resistance may be spreading much faster than expected

New computational technique accurately differentiates between normal and cancer cells

New computational technique accurately differentiates between normal and cancer cells

Study uncovers unusual sex chromosomes of Australian iconic animals

Study uncovers unusual sex chromosomes of Australian iconic animals

Researchers map platypus genome to understand its bizarre characteristics

Researchers map platypus genome to understand its bizarre characteristics

Study addresses mystery of how chromosomes are inherited during cell division

Study addresses mystery of how chromosomes are inherited during cell division

Chromosomal instability is associated with cancer's aggressiveness

Chromosomal instability is associated with cancer's aggressiveness

Study uncovers how shattered chromosomes make cancer cells more aggressive

Study uncovers how shattered chromosomes make cancer cells more aggressive

Scientists discover molecular defects associated with rare genetic disorder in children

Scientists discover molecular defects associated with rare genetic disorder in children

Imperfect egg cells more common than originally thought

Imperfect egg cells more common than originally thought

Newly identified diagnostic marker can help overcome treatment resistance in cervical cancer

Newly identified diagnostic marker can help overcome treatment resistance in cervical cancer

New method could help resolve unwanted genetic changes associated with CRISPR-Cas9 technique

New method could help resolve unwanted genetic changes associated with CRISPR-Cas9 technique

Study shows how telomeres protect chromosome ends

Study shows how telomeres protect chromosome ends

International 10+ Genome Project provides an invaluable resource to improve wheat production

International 10+ Genome Project provides an invaluable resource to improve wheat production

Multiple genomes reveal the diversity and adaptability of wheat

Multiple genomes reveal the diversity and adaptability of wheat