In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Olives, well-known for their characteristic bitter taste, are in high demand owing to the popularity of the oil that's derived from them.
Proper chromosome segregation into two future daughter cells requires the mitotic spindle to elongate in anaphase. However, although some candidate proteins are implicated in this process, the molecular mechanism that drives spindle elongation in human cells has been unknown, until now!
In a recent study led by UCL researchers, the mass of human chromosomes was quantified using X-rays for the first time.
Australian scientists have found what could prove to be a new and effective way to treat a particularly aggressive blood cancer in children.
CRISPR technology enables researchers to edit genomes by modifying DNA sequences and hence gene function.
Inside the nuclei of cells, the genome is tightly organized (packaged). This three-dimensional (3D) genome organization is basic because it controls gene expression.
Following the p53 tumor suppressor gene, the genes encoding two proteins of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are the most often identified mutated.
A lot of biological mechanisms go wrong in cancer—for example genes mutate and cells proliferate in an uncontrollable manner.
In this interview, AZoLifeSciences speaks to Professor Parwinder Kaur about her latest research that uses genomic analysis for the conservation of koalas.
According to recent findings, the genome of single-celled plankton, called dinoflagellates, is arranged in an extremely unusual and strange manner. The study results set the foundations for further research into these vital aquatic species and significantly broaden the understanding of what a eukaryotic genome can look like.
According to a new study, targeting a pathway that is critical for the survival of some cases of acute myeloid leukemia could open up a new therapeutic route for patients.
A single-celled alga removes non-essential pieces by undergoing genome surgery.
A new study explains an effort to create the most detailed and high-resolution map of gene regulation and chromosome architecture in yeast organisms.
A research team has discovered a new role of ADAR1 and found that the ADAR1p110 isoform controls genome stability at the ends of chromosomes.
In the human population, males have one X and one Y chromosomes and females have two X chromosomes. As a result, somatic cells have unique mechanisms that maintain the same gene expression levels on the X chromosome between both genders.
Researchers at Henry Ford Health System, as part of a national asthma collaborative, have identified a gene variant associated with childhood asthma that underscores the importance of including diverse patient populations in research studies.
Researchers from the Andalusian Centre for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), in collaboration with the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC) have studied the mechanisms behind the higher tendency of people with Mulibrey syndrome to develop tumors.
A toxin produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism causes mutations in target bacteria that could help them survive, according to a study published today in eLife.
Several plant pathogens belong to the genus Verticillium and affect many different plant hosts.
In 2020, a research team demonstrated that a significant genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection was inherited from Neanderthals.