Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Scientists examine key mechanisms underlying genomic imprinting

Scientists examine key mechanisms underlying genomic imprinting

Study may pave the way for designing next generation of artificial chromosomes for data storage

Study may pave the way for designing next generation of artificial chromosomes for data storage

New gene determines whether ultraviolet iridescence shows up in butterfly wings

New gene determines whether ultraviolet iridescence shows up in butterfly wings

Research shows how bacteria silence potentially deadly genes

Research shows how bacteria silence potentially deadly genes

Genetic mutation appears to be a predisposing factor for COPD independent of smoking

Genetic mutation appears to be a predisposing factor for COPD independent of smoking

Experts identify first non-coding RNA that controls chromosome loop formation

Experts identify first non-coding RNA that controls chromosome loop formation

Researchers come up with a novel technique to produce single-sex litters

Researchers come up with a novel technique to produce single-sex litters

Study analyzes connections between COVID-19 severity and gene expression

Study analyzes connections between COVID-19 severity and gene expression

New technique could dramatically speed up the breeding of new crops

New technique could dramatically speed up the breeding of new crops

Study employs deep learning AI to classify chromosomal images from plant species

Study employs deep learning AI to classify chromosomal images from plant species

Many mosaic embryos discarded for IVF treatment may lead to successful pregnancies

Many mosaic embryos discarded for IVF treatment may lead to successful pregnancies

De Novo Mutations may Play a Role in Male Infertility

De Novo Mutations may Play a Role in Male Infertility

Study identifies new gene that promotes progression to type 1 diabetes

Study identifies new gene that promotes progression to type 1 diabetes

Study shows how a common gene mutation robs people of natural cancer protection

Study shows how a common gene mutation robs people of natural cancer protection

Researchers identify a gene in wheat with profound effects on the production of seeds

Researchers identify a gene in wheat with profound effects on the production of seeds

Research reveals new mechanism by which plants can rapidly activate defenses against infections

Research reveals new mechanism by which plants can rapidly activate defenses against infections

Study analyzes walking movements to detect nervous system disorders

Study analyzes walking movements to detect nervous system disorders

Newly developed method helps refine the "Out of Africa" scenario

Newly developed method helps refine the "Out of Africa" scenario

Supercomputer-driven dynamic model reveals hidden process in X chromosome inactivation

Supercomputer-driven dynamic model reveals hidden process in X chromosome inactivation

Growing wheat endowed with biological nitrification inhibition raises productivity, quality

Growing wheat endowed with biological nitrification inhibition raises productivity, quality