Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Study shows how telomeres protect chromosome ends

Study shows how telomeres protect chromosome ends

International 10+ Genome Project provides an invaluable resource to improve wheat production

International 10+ Genome Project provides an invaluable resource to improve wheat production

Multiple genomes reveal the diversity and adaptability of wheat

Multiple genomes reveal the diversity and adaptability of wheat

Scientists sequence full genome of ornamental variety of miscanthus

Scientists sequence full genome of ornamental variety of miscanthus

Study sheds new light on penicillin allergy

Study sheds new light on penicillin allergy

Researchers identify genes associated with autism spectrum disorder

Researchers identify genes associated with autism spectrum disorder

Genomes provide insights into fig-wasp coevolution

Genomes provide insights into fig-wasp coevolution

Too many genetic exchanges impede chromosome segregation into eggs

Too many genetic exchanges impede chromosome segregation into eggs

Cancer mutations occur in distinct patterns based on 3D structure of the genome

Cancer mutations occur in distinct patterns based on 3D structure of the genome

Researchers identify new DNA fragment that forms male sex organs in mice

Researchers identify new DNA fragment that forms male sex organs in mice

Neanderthal gene variant associated with higher risk of developing severe COVID-19

Neanderthal gene variant associated with higher risk of developing severe COVID-19

Study sheds new light on the role of Y chromosome genes

Study sheds new light on the role of Y chromosome genes

Researchers discover how antibiotic resistance genes spread via plasmids

Researchers discover how antibiotic resistance genes spread via plasmids

A new method to fish out Y chromosome molecules from microbial DNA

A new method to fish out Y chromosome molecules from microbial DNA

New technology to unlock the secrets of plant genomes in high resolution

New technology to unlock the secrets of plant genomes in high resolution

New mathematical tools reveal the evolution and spread of tumors

New mathematical tools reveal the evolution and spread of tumors

Inherited variation in GATA3 gene associated with relapse in children with leukemia

Inherited variation in GATA3 gene associated with relapse in children with leukemia

New study unravels genetic vulnerability in breast cancer tumors

New study unravels genetic vulnerability in breast cancer tumors

Researchers reconstruct the birth of a male sex chromosome in Atlantic herring

Researchers reconstruct the birth of a male sex chromosome in Atlantic herring

Study reveals gene that provides resistance to tomatoes from bacterial speck disease

Study reveals gene that provides resistance to tomatoes from bacterial speck disease