In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
In Germany about 18 million people suffer from non-alcoholic fatty liver. The causes of this disease are manifold and include environmental as well as genetic factors.
A woman's genetic make-up may cause her to gain weight when using a popular form of birth control, according to a study from researchers.
How cells recognize pathogens and alert the immune system swiftly is a fundamental process of high importance for the survival of any species, including humans.
A study has uncovered how variations in a non-protein coding 'dark matter' region of the genome could make patients susceptible to complex autoimmune diseases.
Scientists from the University of Copenhagen have identified two major functions of the protein known as RTEL1 during cell division, in a recently performed study.
The genetic information within our cells is what makes humans unique. The cell nucleus has a complex structure that harbors this genetic information.
A research team has demonstrated that the DNA sequences inherited from the father and the mother can possibly be disentangled to generate true diploid genomes.
From avocado plants to yeast, sexually reproducing organisms must create germ cells that contain half the number of chromosomes found in a typical body cell.
Just three years ago, researchers had demonstrated that a long-read human genome assembly could be achieved using the same nanopore technology.
Homologous recombination is an essential process of DNA repair to maintain genomic integrity of the organism.
The surge in CBD popularity means more farmers are growing non-intoxicating strains of cannabis, or hemp, for CBD production.
If an actor is not in a position to perform in the theatre, an understudy—preferably one with some practice in the role—can take that role on stage.
Researchers at the University of Bayreuth have discovered a natural protective mechanism that leads to the programmed death of potentially diseased cells.
Wheat sustains the world. The FAO has stated that wheat is one of the main crops in the world, both in terms of scope and production, and it is also one of the rich sources of vegetable protein and carbohydrates in the human diet.
During the process of each single cell division, the chromosomal genetic data should be uniformly distributed between the freshly developing daughter cells.
An international team of researchers has derived a new method that can determine the sex of cannabis sativa plants.
During the developmental phase of brains, a number of moving parts occur—and if mutations occur during the early neurodevelopment, it can result in disorders such as autism and macrocephaly.
A study performed on canines at the University of Helsinki characterizes a gene variant in the regulatory region of the retina that causes abnormal functioning of retinal genes and, ultimately, leads to loss of vision in dogs.
For researchers investigating the regulatory processes in cells that are vital to all life, an innovative system that amplifies gene expression signals could be a turning point.