DNA replication, the basis for biological inheritance, is a fundamental process occurring in all living organisms to copy their DNA. This process is "semiconservative" in that each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.
Human cells have two sets of chromosomes (diploid). It is possible, however, that cells have a tetraploid (quadruple) set.
When something unexpected happens with DNA replication, cells call their own form of 911 to stop the process and rectify the problem.
DNA is often likened to a blueprint. The particular sequence of As, Cs, Gs, and Ts in DNA provides information for building an organism.
For decades, scientists have been trying to unravel an enduring mystery of structural biology: Why do two otherwise identical protein forms found in everything from plants, amphibians and human beings hang onto a slight variation across the mighty span of evolution?
Researchers released a study in Sciences Advances that disclosed new facts about a critical enzyme that allows DNA sequencing.
Adult cells in our bodies can only produce cells of the same type. A skin cell, for example, can only produce skin cells and not muscle cells. This restricts the therapeutic potential of mature cells.
There are many different ways in which the genetic material DNA can be damaged, resulting in the development of diseases such as cancer. Certain forms of DNA damage are associated with so-called R-loops.
Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) of the genus Ranavirus (family iridoviridae) have been isolated from aquatic species such as reptiles, amphibians, and bony fish. Poikilotherms are at risk from these promiscuous infections.
According to recent research, the protein UBR7 acts as a histone chaperone and controls histone re-deposition at certain sites at the time of DNA replication.
A genetically encoded “live-cell” probe developed by scientists from Tokyo Tech pinpointed phosphorylated Ser2 in the enzyme RNA polymerase II.
Researchers at Queen’s University boarded a modified Falcon 20 aircraft at Ottawa airport on May 22nd, 2019 as part of a scheduled “vomit comet” flight. In this mode of flight, the plane repeatedly climbs in a steep parabola to 8 km, alternating with a freefall descent.
Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) allows scientists to investigate the assembly of DNA replication machinery where DNA is damaged.
Professor Norikazu Ichihashi and his colleagues at the University of Tokyo have successfully induced gene expression from a DNA, characteristic of all life, and evolution through continuous replication extracellularly using cell-free materials alone, such as nucleic acids and proteins for the first time.
In this interview, we speak to Dr. Miguel J. Xavier about his latest research into male infertility and how de novo mutations may play a part.
The hereditary material, DNA, interacts with proteins present in the cell nuclei and forms a tightly packed complex with proteins called “chromatin”.
Recent research at the University of Bath reveals that tangles in unwound DNA can develop mutational hotspots in the genomes of bacteria.
Scientists took a further step in the exploration of genetic instability, as exhibited in cancer cells.
Are prematurely aged or overworked stem cells a significant factor in chronic lung disease? Findings of a study just released in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine (SCTM) say this is likely so.
Researchers at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz have developed a method to engineer new functionalities into cells. The results were published today in the journal Cell in the article "Dual film-like organelles enable spatial separation of orthogonal eukaryotic translation".
Cornell researchers have identified a new way to measure DNA torsional stiffness – how much resistance the helix offers when twisted – information that can potentially shed light on how cells work.