DNA replication, the basis for biological inheritance, is a fundamental process occurring in all living organisms to copy their DNA. This process is "semiconservative" in that each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.
Cutting-edge super-resolution microscopy techniques can now achieve optical resolutions within the range of a few nm, corresponding to the size of cellular molecules.
A new study has unraveled a crucial link between how cancer cells cope with replication stress and the role of Taurine Upregulated Gene 1 (TUG1). By targeting TUG1 with a drug, the researchers were able to control brain tumor growth in mice, suggesting a potential strategy to combat aggressive brain tumors such as glioblastomas.
Chromosomal instability is a phenomenon marked by rapid alterations in the count and configuration of chromosomes during cell division. This occurrence is prevalent in solid tumors and is closely associated with the aggressive dissemination of cancer, known as metastasis.
Scientific research requires patience. The rewards are not always immediate, and the technology needed does not always exist. Michael A. Trakselis, Ph.D., professor and director of graduate affairs for the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Baylor University, understands this.
Since the passage of the DNA replication fork destroys nucleosomes on the DNA, chromatin inheritance during cell division requires the replication of DNA and the assembling of nucleosomes onto the duplicated DNA.
Researchers at the University of California San Diego have uncovered a connection between the topography of the human genome and the presence of mutations in human cancer. They found that certain regions of the genome, which exhibit unique features, act as hotspots for the accumulation of mutations.
A high-fiber diet is known to have several health benefits. Scientific studies point to protection against such diseases as cancer and diabetes.
In their study performed, the research group discusses their novel view of euchromatin present in the cell and displays how the disclosed organization is appropriate to genome functions.
A new research paper was published in Aging (listed by MEDLINE/PubMed as "Aging (Albany NY)" and "Aging-US" by Web of Science) Volume 15, Issue 10, entitled, "Key elements of cellular senescence involve transcriptional repression of mitotic and DNA repair genes through the p53-p16/RB-E2F-DREAM complex."
Older, long-lived trees are thought to contribute more to the creation and maintenance of genetic mutations than short-lived trees, according to research on the link between the growth rate of tropical trees and the frequency of genetic mutations they collect.
Researchers of the Genome Dynamics Project team at Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science revealed new mechanism controlling cellular proliferation in response to serum, which triggers growth of resting cells.
A new study will examine the possibility that specialized plant “train tracks” that transport chemicals within cells could help in feeding the world’s expanding population.
Scientists from Tokyo Metropolitan University have used machine learning to automate the identification of defects in sister chromatid cohesion. They trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) with microscopy images of individual stained chromosomes, identified by researchers as having or not having cohesion defects. After training, it was able to successfully classify 73.1% of new images. Automation promises better statistics, and more insight into the wide range of disorders which cause cohesion defects.
All living organisms require DNA replication to ensure the genetic integrity of the following generation. On the other hand, bacteria have the ability to horizontally transfer genetic information to other bacteria.
Umeå University researchers have figured out how a particular type of protein travels during DNA replication. The discovery could affect the current understanding of how bacteria propagate antibiotic resistance genes.
Cells zealously protect the integrity of their genomes, because damage can lead to cancer or cell death. The genome, a cell’s complete set of DNA, is most vulnerable while it is being duplicated before a cell divides.
Scientists from Weill Cornell Medicine have discovered a protein that not only prepares DNA for replication but also controls the replication process. The research, which was published on January 5th, 2023, in the journal Molecular Cell, resolves a puzzle that has long-baffled biologists.
A study team headed by Dr Yuanliang Zhai from The University of Hong Kong’s (HKU) School of Biological Sciences and his associates from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) and Institut Curie in France discovered a new mechanism of the human MCM2-7 complex in controlling replication initiation, which can be employed as a unique and effective anticancer method with the potential for selective death of cancer cells.
A grasshopper hatched in a crowded environment may look and behave differently than a grasshopper hatched in isolation -; even if they have the same genes.
Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute, in partnership with Artios, have discovered how an enzyme involved in DNA repair (POLQ) becomes critical to the survival of some tumors when the cancer cells lose the ability to employ a more frequent way of DNA repair.