Dopamine is a hormone and neurotransmitter occurring in a wide variety of animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the brain, this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating the five types of dopamine receptors — D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5, and their variants. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. Its main function as a hormone is to inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Dopamine has many functions in the brain, including important roles in behavior and cognition, motor activity, motivation and reward, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation), sleep, mood, attention, and learning. Dopaminergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is dopamine) are present chiefly in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, substantia nigra pars compacta, and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
North Carolina State University researchers have shown that neuron-like cells produced from human stem cells may be used to examine alterations in the neurological system linked to addiction.
In a work of systematic biology that advances the field, University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have identified 16 distinct cell populations in a complex area of the midbrain called the ventral tegmental area, or VTA.
Many people have experienced the sudden and unmanageable desire to eat a particular food. These desires, known as cravings, are very usual, especially during pregnancy.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease in which a specific type of neuron, the dopaminergic neuron, is destroyed.
There's nothing like a steaming cup of joe to give your morning a quick boost. Now, there's yet another reason to love the beverage.
Biological functions rely on accurate cellular communication involving different molecules. Most major signaling pathways involved in such communication, called signal transduction, often involve a family of kinases—enzymes catalyzing the transfer of phosphates between specific substrate molecules.
In a study led by Cedars-Sinai, researchers have discovered two types of brain cells that play a key role in dividing continuous human experience into distinct segments that can be recalled later.
Parkinson's disease may be driven in part by cell stress-related biochemical events that disrupt a key cellular cleanup system, leading to the spread of harmful protein aggregates in the brain, according to a new study from scientists at Scripps Research.
Three members of a family of proteins have been identified that are important to helping us fine tune the activity of brain chemicals which enable us to walk or stand at will, scientists report.
Receptors are docking stations found on the surface of cells. Compounds such as caffeinE, dopamine, THC, and LSD, all bind to these receptors.
Case reports of younger COVID-19 patients developing Parkinson’s disease within weeks of contracting the virus led researchers to investigate a possible link between the two conditions.
In humans, the dopamine system has been tied to rewards and pleasurable sensations. As well as to memory and learning.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, afflicting more than 10 million people worldwide and more than one million Americans. While there is no cure for PD, current therapies focus on treating motor symptoms and fail to reverse, or even address, the underlying neurological damage.
After several decades of pre-clinical development, cell- and gene-based therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) are now actively being explored. In this special supplement to the Journal of Parkinson's Disease on "Repairing the Parkinsonian Brain," experts highlight some of the current strategies being pursued to restore lost function and replace what is lost in the PD brain, with special emphasis on the challenges associated with translating advanced therapeutic approaches into pioneering clinical trials.
Imagine working on your computer and typing the same long password you have used for years to access your email.
A new study has demonstrated the removal of damaged mitochondria from the brain cells of mice treated with a small molecule compound for Parkinson’s disease.
A new study published in Nature Communications suggests that gene therapy delivered into the brain may be safe and effective in treating aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.
Scientists discovered that aromatic turmerone and its derivatives have a direct effect on the dopaminergic nerves.
Newly devised gene therapy can help children born with AADC, a rare genetic disorder that causes developmental and physical disabilities.
Children with a devastating genetic disorder characterized by severe motor disability and developmental delay have experienced sometimes dramatic improvements in a gene therapy trial launched at UCSF Benioff Children's Hospitals.