Epilepsy is a group of disorders marked by problems in the normal functioning of the brain. These problems can produce seizures, unusual body movements, a loss of consciousness or changes in consciousness, as well as mental problems or problems with the senses.
New research published by investigators at Cedars-Sinai advances scientific understanding of how the brain weighs decisions involving what people like or value, such as choosing which book to read, which restaurant to pick for lunch-;or even, which slot machine to play in a casino.
In order to more fully understand how diseases arise in the brain, scientists must unravel the intricate way neurons relay messages (either chemical or electrical) along a complex web of nerve cells. One way is by using a tool called DREADDs, which stands for Designer Receptors Activated by Designer Drugs.
Biologists at the University of Iowa have conclusively connected epilepsy with the brain’s immune system.
Glioma is one of the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumors. A common feature of glioma is the presence of localized, intermittent seizures referred to as glioma-related epilepsy, which is known to promote tumor growth. However, the mechanism involved at the molecular level is still not clear.
As humans, we each have trillions of cells. And each cell has a nucleus with individual genetic information –DNA – that can mutate to create an abnormality.
Autism and epilepsy are two highly prevalent conditions that fall under the umbrella of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), which affect 1–3% of the world’s population just in terms of cognitive disabilities.
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) researchers have identified a particular genetic variant in SCN1A, the most common genetic epilepsy, that contributes to an earlier start of epilepsy with clinical features different from other epilepsies.
One of the epilepsy types that are most prevalent worldwide is temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although there are symptomatic medications available, one-third of TLE patients are still not responding to the current course of treatment, necessitating the urgent need for new drug targets.
The mTOR protein is important for cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Its activity fluctuates according to nutrient availability and growth factors like hormones.
Not just three, but even five proteins share important roles in the formation and function of synapses and can substitute for each other. This discovery was made by a team of the research focus "Mental Health & Neuroscience" of the Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences Krems (KL Krems) and the CavX PhD program of the Medical University of Innsbruck.
An RNA-based editing tool has been developed by Duke University researchers, which targets specific cells rather than genes. Any cell type can be precisely targeted, and any protein of interest can be added only to that cell type.
Researchers from Tohoku University have now shown that the consolidation and extinction of contextual fear conditioning alter the microglial genes connected to the synapse—structures that permit neurons to communicate with one another.
The UCLA creators of a miniature microscope that can be mounted on the heads of lab animals to provide an invaluable view into the brain's inner workings have received a $4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop next-generation versions of their "miniscope."
A single gene that was previously discovered to be the main factor in a rare disease associated with epilepsy, autism, and developmental delay has been named as a key player in the development of healthy neurons.
For the first time, researchers have deciphered the atomic structure of a protein that transports one of the body’s most vital neurotransmitters into neurons.
The brain has the potential to change the way neurons communicate with one another. That is how it prevents out-of-control brain activity. Scientists have discovered a mechanism that plays a key role in this.
According to a study headed by researchers from USC Stem Cell and the USC Neurorestoration Center, adults may recover at least some of what they have lost by producing new brain cells, and this process is profoundly modified in patients with long-term epilepsy.
Researchers from a USC-led consortium have discovered 15 "hotspots" in the genome that either speed up brain aging or slow it down -; a finding that could provide new drug targets to resist Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative brain disorders, as well as developmental delays.
CHARGE syndrome, which affects approximately one in 10,000 newborns worldwide, is associated with neurological and behavioral conditions like intellectual disability, attention deficit disorder, convulsions, and autism.
Scientists at UT Southwestern have discovered a four-protein complex that seems to play a significant function in the formation of ribosomes, which serve as protein factories for cells, as well as a surprise role in neurodevelopmental diseases.