Multicellular eukaryotes and single-celled sex cells reproduce by a process called meiosis. In this process, the number of chromosomes in a mother cell is halved to produce gametes, cells that fuse with other cells. This happens in plants, animals, and fungi. German biologist, Oscar Hertwig first discovered meiosis in sea urchin eggs in 1876.
The sex chromosomes genetically define the developmental fate of an embryo to become a male or a female individual, and usually, appear as one pair of morphologically different chromosomes between sexes.
Skoltech's evolutionary biologists discovered recombination in bdelloid rotifers, microscopic freshwater invertebrates, which have long been regarded as 'an evolutionary scandal' due to their presumed ancient asexuality.
AZoLifeSciences speaks to Dr. Terry Hasssold about his latest research into oocytes and how imperfect egg cells are more common than scientists initially thought.
It can be hard to dispute the common adage 'survival of the fittest'. After all, "most of the genes in the genome are there because they're doing something good," says Sarah Zanders, PhD, assistant investigator at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research
The Y chromosome, which is relatively smaller than its counterpart, the X chromosome, has significantly reduced in size across 200 million years of evolution.
Although crop hybrid technologies have played a key role in considerably improving crop yield across the world in the past decades, developing and maintaining a hybrid production line has invariably been laborious and complex.
The gene C19ORF57 has been identified to play a major role in meiosis by the Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics at Kumamoto University.
As chromosomes go, X and Y make an unlikely pair. The X is large and contains thousands of genes critical for life.
From avocado plants to yeast, sexually reproducing organisms must create germ cells that contain half the number of chromosomes found in a typical body cell.
Wheat sustains the world. The FAO has stated that wheat is one of the main crops in the world, both in terms of scope and production, and it is also one of the rich sources of vegetable protein and carbohydrates in the human diet.