Each mammalian cell contains up to 20,000 proteins, all of which must be maintained and regulated. Proteostasis is a complex pathway that functions to maintain all of the proteins within and around a cell.
Huntington's disease is caused by a mutation in the Huntingtin gene, a protein necessary for the proper functioning of several brain cells.
Aging leads to a decline in cellular fitness and loss of optimal protein function. Many age-related ailments, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, are caused by protein aggregation, a result of errors in protein folding.
Cells contain numerous functional “micro-organs” known as organelles. Mitochondria, the “power plant” of the cell, are the energy-producing organelles.
Proteins are the "tools" of our cells – they are essential to all vital tasks. However, they are only able to do their jobs if they fold correctly and adopt their respective, very specific 3D structure.
DNA strand breaks can play a role in the aging process. Now, with infrared spectroscopy, scientists have visualized the processes that take place at breaks.
Cellular proteostasis is regulated by a crucial proteolytic machine called proteasome via selective degradation of ubiquitylated proteins.