A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
A new anti-retroviral medication for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Union just over a year ago.
The results of a recent study led by the Geisel School of Medicine and Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, and published in Cell Reports Medicine, provide new information about the role that antibodies play in preventing herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections.
A rare viral illness called mpox, formerly known as monkeypox, is transmitted by direct physical contact between individuals.
The path from mitochondrial stress to leaking endosomes to immune system initiation in mouse cells is outlined by Salk scientists, providing new therapeutic targets to potentially reduce inflammation in aging and disease.
While combing through the human genome in 2007, computational geneticist Pardis Sabeti made a discovery that would transform her research career.
For many years, it was thought that acute viral infections, such as COVID-19 or Zika, were the cause of neurological damage.
Genome engineering allows scientists to modify the genetic code of microbes. Now, researchers have engineered the genome of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) to make it immune to viral infections.
As the HIV virus approaches a human cell to dock and potentially deliver its lethal genetic code, there is a remarkably brief moment during which a tiny portion of its surface undergoes a rapid opening, initiating the infection process.
The interplay between ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins is not only important for maintaining cellular homeostasis but is also at the center of the tug-of-war between virus and host.
Using a virus-like delivery particle made from DNA, researchers from MIT and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard have created a vaccine that can induce a strong antibody response against SARS-CoV-2.
The composition of microbiota found in the gut influences how susceptible mice are to respiratory virus infections and the severity of these infections, according to researchers from the Center for Translational Antiviral Research in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
Around one million individuals worldwide become infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, each year.
QIAGEN (NYSE: QGEN; Frankfurt Prime Standard: QIA) today announced a first-in-kind collaboration with Penn State University in the United States to create a shared research and education facility for the fast-developing microbiome sciences.
In nature, the majority of bacteria adhere to a minimalistic lifestyle. When faced with nutrient scarcity or stress, they initiate a controlled shutdown of their metabolism, entering a resting state.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a pathogen that likes to lurk. Most adults already carry CMV, and they show no symptoms at all.
Cold, flu and COVID-19 season brings that now-familiar ritual: swab, wait, look at the result. But what if, instead of taking 15 minutes or more, a test could quickly determine whether you have COVID-19 with a glowing chemical?
When pathogens attack the body, the innate immune system goes to work protecting against the invading disease.
The body's immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a role in causing damage in people with multiple sclerosis, according to a new study led by UTHealth Houston.
Food virologists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have successfully propagated the human norovirus using zebrafish embryos, providing a valuable platform to assess the effectiveness of virus inactivation for the water treatment and food industries.
Supraglacial environments mainly consist of four main types of habitats for microbes and viruses, including snow, ice, meltwater, and cryoconites (the granular sediment on glacier surfaces).