A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
SARS-CoV-2 hijacks human cell machinery to disrupt the immune response, enabling it to cause infection, replicate, and cause disease.
Researchers from UT Southwestern used a new kind of gene therapy to successfully treat mice with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), distinctively employing CRISPR-Cas9-based tools to restore a large section of the dystrophin protein missing in several DMD patients.
Scientists have known for a while that SARS-CoV-2's distinctive "spike" proteins help the virus infect its host by latching on to healthy cells.
While the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system has become the poster child for innovation in synthetic biology, it has some major limitations.
According to the findings of a recent cell study, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can trigger long-term gene expression changes.
Researchers have discovered a possible connection between increased vulnerability to COVID-19 infection and exposure to organophosphate pesticides.
The Wistar Institute has developed a synthetic DNA vaccine candidate for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
A research team has created an AI technique that can bind immune cells to their targets and uncouple the types of white blood cells that identify SARS-CoV-2.
Researchers have found that a natural molecule can effectively block the binding of a subset of human antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The discovery may help explain why some COVID-19 patients can become severely ill despite having high levels of antibodies against the virus.
Research teams investigated the antibodies generated in people with symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Researchers have now identified how SARS viruses improve the production of viral proteins in infected cells such that new copies of the virus can be produced.
Scientists have discovered new methods to interpret the immune system, as part of a new study reported in the Nature journal.
Conventional techniques lack the potential to easily sample wider geographical areas and huge numbers of individuals.
The largest study of its type in the UK has identified differences in the immune response to COVID-19, between people with no symptoms, compared to those suffering a more serious reaction to the virus.
Researchers have found a set of human genes that combat infection due to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for causing COVID-19.
It has been known for about a year that minks can become infected with SARS-CoV-2. The virus had been transmitted from humans to farmed mink and mutated in infected animals. Mutations were acquired in the spike protein, which is crucial for the entry of the virus into host cells and represents the central point of attack for antibodies.
Large-scale supercomputer simulations at the atomic level show that the dominant G form variant of the COVID-19-causing virus is more infectious partly because of its greater ability to readily bind to its target host receptor in the body, compared to other variants.
Some survivors of ebolavirus outbreaks make antibodies that can broadly neutralize these viruses--and now, scientists at Scripps Research have illuminated how these antibodies can disable the viruses so effectively. The insights may be helpful for developing effective therapies.
The human genome contains the instructions to make tens of thousands of proteins. Each protein folds into a precise shape--and biologists are taught that defined shape dictates the protein's destined function. Tens of thousands of singular shapes drive the tens of thousands of needed functions.
Describing the genetic diversity of human populations is essential to improve our understanding of human diseases and their geographical distribution.