A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Zika outbreaks are still having lasting effects on children whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus during their pregnancy.
The majority of organisms feature the series of ENDOU enzymes, but despite this fact, the functions of these enzymes have not been properly understood.
The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) is the main vector of deadly diseases like dengue fever, chikungunya, and the Zika virus, which result in hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year.
For the first time, scientists have discovered the genetic predisposition of severe COVID-19 disease.
Considering the recent COVID-19 pandemic, significant investigations are being made to find out how the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein binds to a human cell.
According to a new study, a gene associated with an exceptionally long-life span in human beings guards the brain stem cells against the adverse effects of stress.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a technique that allows high-resolution isolation of proteins separated from biological specimens.
While neutralizing antibodies form in less than two weeks of a COVID-19 infection, their intensity and durability can differ from one individual to another.
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have launched a first-in-human Phase I clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a gene therapy to deliver a key protein into the brains of persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes full-blown dementia.
Recently, messenger RNA, also called mRNA, vaccines, to combat the COVID-19 infection have made headlines worldwide, but researchers have already been experimenting with mRNA vaccines to prevent or cure other illnesses, including certain types of cancer.
In 2020, a research team demonstrated that a significant genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection was inherited from Neanderthals.
Cancer cells and immune cells share something in common: They both love sugar. Sugar is an important nutrient. All cells use sugar as a vital source of energy and building blocks. For immune cells, gobbling up sugar is a good thing, since it means getting enough nutrients to grow and divide for stronger immune responses. But cancer cells use sugar for more nefarious ends.
When the Covid-19 pandemic struck in early 2020, doctors and researchers rushed to find effective treatments.
Researchers have designed a program that allows the complete study of the SARS-CoV-2 mutant spectrum by ultrasequencing.
T lymphocytes, or T cells, are an important component of our immune system. They can recognize foreign proteins, so-called antigens, as peptide fragments - for instance, those derived from viruses or cancer cells.
Dyno Therapeutics has demonstrated the use of AI to created an unparalleled range of adeno-associated virus capsids that can evade the immune system.
Researchers at EMBL Heidelberg have identified sequences in human proteins that might be used by SARS-CoV-2 to infect cells. They have discovered that the virus might hijack certain cellular processes, and they discuss potentially relevant drugs for treating COVID-19.
Past exposure to seasonal coronaviruses (CoVs), which cause the common cold, does not result in the production of antibodies that protect against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, according to a study led by Scott Hensley, PhD, an associate professor of Microbiology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Prompted by the need to improve conventional treatments for people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a team from the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) has identified a therapeutic approach to restore the effectiveness of immune cells.
Certain coronaviruses can add some genes, that belong to the host they infected, to their genetic pool. In this manner, they can merge and be less noticeable in the immune system.