Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.
The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), are fast-moving, fatal dementia syndromes associated with the formation of aggregates of the prion protein, PrP.
To decipher the mysteries behind memory and learning, researchers from Johns Hopkins Medicine developed a system to trace millions of connections amongst brain cells in mice.
In this interview, we speak to Dr. Fiona Brennan from Teagasc, about the importance of sustainable agricultural practices and how they can help to improve soil health.
In 2019, the WHO positioned chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) third in the global ranking of causes of death.
Humans and fruit flies respond to many of the same tastes -; sweet, salty, bitter and so on. The receptors that identify these substances, however, are very different between us and insects. Except when it comes to sour.
An international team including Rutgers-New Brunswick scientists utilized artificial intelligence techniques and traced the evolution of coccolithophores—an ocean-dwelling phytoplankton group, above 2.8 million years.
Advancing our understanding of the human brain will require new insights into how neural circuitry works in mammals, including laboratory mice.
Which diet is better: moderately reduce meat consumption and eat more fruit, vegetables and wholegrain products, as recommended by the German Nutrition Society? Follow Germany's southern neighbors' example and eat more fish and seafood? Or even switch completely to a vegan diet?
While dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) is known to mediate inflammation and bone metabolism, ligands that bind DCIR and the mechanisms underlying DCIR activity remain poorly understood.
Drinking orange juice with breakfast has been a staple in kitchens for years. But a disease has been infecting citrus trees and reducing yields, threatening the supply.
For 30 years, mysterious clusters of proteins found on the cell body of neurons in the hippocampus, a part of the brain, both intrigued and baffled James Trimmer.
Stem cell therapy needs a lot of human cells, of a specific type. Shining a near-infrared laser on adult stem cells derived from human body fat, makes the stem cells replicate 54% faster.
Research on the development of symmetry in mice embryos is anticipated to provide a deeper understanding of the causes of disease.
Known as a crucial component in the body's ability to absorb and retain calcium, essential to processes such as the development and maintenance of healthy bones, vitamin D has also been found to play important roles in immune defense.
Nagoya University researchers and colleagues have improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of a key protein that makes the stomach acidic. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Communications, could lead to better drugs for stomach ulcers and shed light on the functions of similar proteins across the human body.
Recent research states that the number of secretory granules (SGs) in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and the marker proteins secretogranin III substantially lowered in the substantia nigra and striatum regions of mice exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine.
The bones become thinner with age, resulting in frequent fractures and making them susceptible to bone diseases like osteoporosis.
In a Pearls article publishing September 16th in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens, Patrick Keeling and colleagues at the University of British Columbia in Canada describe investigations into an enigmatic group of coral-infecting microbes.
Getting your day started sometimes feels like it requires magic, but making a good cup of tea requires a little science.
Mutant DNA sequences inside cellular mitochondria can be eliminated using a bespoke chemical compound. The approach, developed by scientists at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Science (iCeMS) in Japan, could lead to better treatments for mitochondrial diseases.