Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.
The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Researchers at the University at Albany’s RNA Institute have demonstrated a new approach to DNA nanostructure assembly that does not require magnesium.
Recent research conducted by Phillip Cleves of Carnegie employs sophisticated CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technologies to identify a gene essential to stony corals’ capacity to construct complex reef designs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published this.
In a nutritional comparison of plant-based and dairy yogurts, almond milk yogurt came out on top, according to research led by a University of Massachusetts Amherst food science major.
Our cells are crisscrossed by a system of membrane tubes and pockets called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is crucial for the production of biomolecules and is continuously built up and degraded.
Because serotonin is one of the primary chemicals the brain uses to influence mood and behavior, it is also the most common target of psychiatric drugs.
In Europe, Clostridioides difficile infection results in severe diarrhea and leads to the death of around 20,000 patients, every year. It is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections.
A new editorial paper was published in Aging (listed by MEDLINE/PubMed as "Aging (Albany NY)" and "Aging-US" by Web of Science) Volume 15, Issue 8, entitled, "The senescence-associated secretory phenotype induces neuroendocrine transdifferentiation."
Investigators from Brazil reveal that Amazonian dark earth (ADE), soils enriched by Amerindian people thousands of years ago, enhances the establishment and growth of seedlings of tree species vital for reforestation.
Photosynthesis plays a crucial role in shaping and sustaining life on Earth, yet many aspects of the process remain a mystery.
Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), a complex disorder that occurs in some patients who have engaged in excessive alcohol use, is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease among veterans and liver transplant patients in the United States.
University of School of Medicine researchers have identified a gene that plays a crucial role in determining our risk for heart attacks, deadly aneurysms, coronary artery disease and other dangerous vascular conditions.
Physical activity is often quoted as a method of increasing mental and physical health. Scientists at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology have proved that it might also enhance brain health more directly.
Researchers with the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History have discovered the first effective bacterial probiotic for treating and preventing stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD), a mysterious ailment that has devastated Florida's coral reefs since 2014 and is rapidly spreading throughout the Caribbean.
A pre-market regulatory status review conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has concluded that teff modified by genome editing to have a semi-dwarf stature is not subject to biotechnology regulation under USDA's SECURE Rule.
Using cryo-electron microscopy and mass spectrometry, researchers from PSI have deciphered the structure of an ion channel found in the eye while it interacts with the protein calmodulin – a structure that has eluded scientists for three decades.
Long thought of as "brain glue," the star-shaped cells called astrocytes-;members of a family of cells found in the central nervous system called glial that help regulate blood flow, synaptic activity, keep neurons healthy, and play an important role in breathing.
A rare, genetic disorder known as Hailey-Hailey disease causes patches of blisters to develop mainly in the folds of skin under the breasts, in the groin, and the armpits.
An international study led by the Molecular Physiology Laboratory at the UPF Department of Medicine and Life Sciences (MELIS) identifies new genes that modulate the toxicity of the protein β-amyloid, responsible for causing Alzheimer's disease.
New UC Riverside research makes it likely that proteins responsible for activating mosquito sperm can be shut down, preventing them from swimming to or fertilizing eggs.
Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute have found that high consumption of a common artificial sweetener, sucralose, lowers activation of T-cells, an important component of the immune system, in mice.