Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.
The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Scientists at Scripps Research and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research have discovered a special type of cell that resides in salivary glands and is likely crucial for oral health.
While rain is essential for the survival of plants, it also contains bacteria and other pathogens which can cause them harm. So how do plants protect themselves from this threat?
If a plant decided to go on a diet, what do you think it would choose to be as healthy as possible? It turns out that plants, like humans, rely on essential nutrients to maintain a healthy and balanced lifestyle.
A protein that helps keep our cell powerhouses working at a premium appears to also help make energy rapidly available when it's time to make new blood vessels.
Researchers have found that a human receptor protein can identify individual amino acids in just the similar way that bacteria do.
Everyone knows eating fruits and vegetables is good for your health. But these days, stores offer a dizzying array of options: organic, conventional, CSAs, local agriculture. Which ones are best for your health?
Medicine has a broad repertoire of anesthetics at its medication allows patients to better endure painful treatments or even sleep through them.
In this interview, we speak to Dr. Santiago Miriuka, CEO of MultiplAI Health, about the importance of having diverse genomics data in research.
Autism spectrum disorder has been associated with hundreds of different genes, but how these distinct genetic mutations converge on a similar pathology in patients has remained a mystery.
Bacterial biofilms can thrive on almost all types of surfaces: We find them on rocks and plants, on teeth and mucous membranes, but also on contact lenses, medical implants or catheters, in the hoses of the dairy industry or drinking water pipes, where they can pose a serious threat to human health.
There are more than 9,000 species of marine sponges (Phylum Porifera) worldwide, which are a source of novel natural products.
A study published by researchers at the University of Illinois Chicago describes a new method for analyzing pyroptosis -; the process of cell death that is usually caused by infections and results in excess inflammation in the body -; and shows that process, long thought to be irreversible once initiated, can in fact be halted and controlled.
Prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), are fast-moving, fatal dementia syndromes associated with the formation of aggregates of the prion protein, PrP.
To decipher the mysteries behind memory and learning, researchers from Johns Hopkins Medicine developed a system to trace millions of connections amongst brain cells in mice.
In this interview, we speak to Dr. Fiona Brennan from Teagasc, about the importance of sustainable agricultural practices and how they can help to improve soil health.
In 2019, the WHO positioned chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) third in the global ranking of causes of death.
Humans and fruit flies respond to many of the same tastes -; sweet, salty, bitter and so on. The receptors that identify these substances, however, are very different between us and insects. Except when it comes to sour.
An international team including Rutgers-New Brunswick scientists utilized artificial intelligence techniques and traced the evolution of coccolithophores—an ocean-dwelling phytoplankton group, above 2.8 million years.
Advancing our understanding of the human brain will require new insights into how neural circuitry works in mammals, including laboratory mice.
Which diet is better: moderately reduce meat consumption and eat more fruit, vegetables and wholegrain products, as recommended by the German Nutrition Society? Follow Germany's southern neighbors' example and eat more fish and seafood? Or even switch completely to a vegan diet?