Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.
The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Humans learn to handle a variety of skilled movements throughout their lives, from driving a car to swinging a tennis racket. Neurons are not the only ones who implement this learning, but a new study from The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT shows that astrocytes play an important role as well.
Under the guidance of Rutgers University, a research group learning about virus-host interactions of worldwide abundant and armor-plated marine algae, Emiliania huxleyi, has discovered that the circular and chalk plates produced by the algae have the potential to serve as catalysts for viral infection.
This study is led by Dr. Anjian Xu (Beijing Clinical Research Institute, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University), Dr. Min Cong (Liver Research Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University) and Dr. Junying Ding (Beijing Key Laboratory of Basic Research with Traditional Chinese Medicine on Infectious Diseases, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University).
Here is an important reason to stay in touch with friends and family: social isolation causes memory and learning deficits and other behavioral changes.
A synthetic biosensor that mimics properties found in cell membranes and provides an electronic readout of activity could lead to a better understanding of cell biology, development of new drugs, and the creation of sensory organs on a chip capable of detecting chemicals, similar to how noses and tongues work.
New UC Riverside research suggests nitrogen released by gas-powered machines causes dry soil to let go of carbon and release it back into the atmosphere, where it can contribute to climate change.
Cells zealously protect the integrity of their genomes, because damage can lead to cancer or cell death. The genome, a cell’s complete set of DNA, is most vulnerable while it is being duplicated before a cell divides.
Raphidocystis contractilis belongs to Heliozoa, a group of eukaryotes that is generally seen in brackish, fresh, and seawater.
To tackle the climate crisis, biodiversity loss, and pollution, humanity will need to move to a circular economy, where all resources are recycled.
Although the human body is superficially symmetric along the left–right axis, most internal organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, stomach, and brain, have noteworthy left–right asymmetries in their structure and placement.
Using a specialized MRI sensor, MIT researchers have shown that they can detect light deep within tissues such as the brain.
Inexpensive, small fish species caught in seas and lakes in developing countries could help close nutritional gaps for undernourished people, and especially young children, according to new research.
Andor Technology, an Oxford Instruments company and a world leader in scientific imaging solutions, has today announced the launch of two new scientific CMOS cameras, specifically designed for life science researchers.
A team of researchers has sequenced the Honeycrisp apple genome, a boon for scientists and breeders working with this popular and economically important cultivar.
Not just three, but even five proteins share important roles in the formation and function of synapses and can substitute for each other. This discovery was made by a team of the research focus "Mental Health & Neuroscience" of the Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences Krems (KL Krems) and the CavX PhD program of the Medical University of Innsbruck.
In order to grow well, plants need a place to grow, access to nutrients, and in most cases sunlight. A rich soil provides that home and a good supply of nutrients.
Numerous cells, including neurons, depend on the intracellular messenger molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to function. It does this by encouraging axon growth and maintaining neuronal communication.
Mitochondria are self-contained organelles that reside inside cells and are tasked with producing the chemical energy required to power vital tasks necessary for life and wellbeing. They have their own mini-chromosome and DNA.
Mangrove forests play a vital role in the health of our planet. The trees and shrubs absorb a substantial amount of greenhouse gas emissions, help protect communities from rising sea levels, and act as nurseries for baby fish.
Because of their proximity to the ocean, Californians get to enjoy locally-sourced oysters, mussels, abalone and clams.