Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.
The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
While dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) is known to mediate inflammation and bone metabolism, ligands that bind DCIR and the mechanisms underlying DCIR activity remain poorly understood.
Drinking orange juice with breakfast has been a staple in kitchens for years. But a disease has been infecting citrus trees and reducing yields, threatening the supply.
For 30 years, mysterious clusters of proteins found on the cell body of neurons in the hippocampus, a part of the brain, both intrigued and baffled James Trimmer.
Stem cell therapy needs a lot of human cells, of a specific type. Shining a near-infrared laser on adult stem cells derived from human body fat, makes the stem cells replicate 54% faster.
Research on the development of symmetry in mice embryos is anticipated to provide a deeper understanding of the causes of disease.
Known as a crucial component in the body's ability to absorb and retain calcium, essential to processes such as the development and maintenance of healthy bones, vitamin D has also been found to play important roles in immune defense.
Nagoya University researchers and colleagues have improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of a key protein that makes the stomach acidic. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Communications, could lead to better drugs for stomach ulcers and shed light on the functions of similar proteins across the human body.
Recent research states that the number of secretory granules (SGs) in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and the marker proteins secretogranin III substantially lowered in the substantia nigra and striatum regions of mice exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine.
The bones become thinner with age, resulting in frequent fractures and making them susceptible to bone diseases like osteoporosis.
In a Pearls article publishing September 16th in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens, Patrick Keeling and colleagues at the University of British Columbia in Canada describe investigations into an enigmatic group of coral-infecting microbes.
Getting your day started sometimes feels like it requires magic, but making a good cup of tea requires a little science.
Mutant DNA sequences inside cellular mitochondria can be eliminated using a bespoke chemical compound. The approach, developed by scientists at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Science (iCeMS) in Japan, could lead to better treatments for mitochondrial diseases.
Cells produce exosomes, the nano-sized biological capsules, to protect and courier delicate molecules across the body. The capsules are hard enough to resist enzymatic breakdown and acidic and temperature fluctuations in the bloodstream and gut, which makes them a major candidate for drug delivery.
The perfect cup of morning coffee. Before you even purchase the beans at the store, many things must go right before that great-tasting coffee can be poured into your favorite mug. It starts in the soil where farmers grow the beans.
According to scientists, people tend to prioritize food over sex after being deprived of both. The researchers examined this behavioral conflict in fruit flies.
Recent research identified that a protein involved in regulating calcium signaling within heart cells can play a vital role in the prevention of chronic heart failure.
For dairy cows, the transition period--the time between a cow giving birth and beginning to produce milk--brings the greatest possibility of health problems.
Stomata, the small microscopic pores present on leaves in plants, aids in regulating the influx of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
For many years, computer models have been standard tools in fundamental biomedical research.
Interluekin-1α (IL-1α) is an important part of the immune response, but until now it has been unclear how this molecule is processed from its precursor, pro-IL-1α, and exits the cell during inflammasome activation.