A hormone is a chemical released by one or more cells that affects cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another.
Ustilago maydis attacks and reproduces in the aerial parts of the corn plant. At the location of the infection, massive tumor-like tissue growths frequently develop. The size of these galls can exceed that of a child’s skull.
According to two studies conducted by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine, the circadian clocks that keep the body and its cells synchronized to the 24-hour day-night cycle are severely disrupted.
Food production has grown more and more challenging for producers throughout the globe due to rising global temperatures and declining pollinator populations.
University of Cape Town (UCT) researchers have used cryo-electron microscopy to identify the first complete structures of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (cryo-EM). A protein that controls blood pressure, ACE, is essential for maintaining good heart health.
Research studying the autoimmune response, in which the immune system kills the insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells, is a common topic of type 1 diabetes research.
To create innovative tests for a variety of chemicals, such as banned pesticides and dangerous, synthetic cannabinoids, scientists have changed proteins that are involved in plants’ natural reactions to stress.
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show how a molecule that they have identified stimulates the formation of new insulin-producing cells in zebrafish and mammalian tissue, through a newly described mechanism for regulating protein synthesis.
Extreme weather phenomena are on the rise worldwide, including frequent droughts and fires. Floods are also a clear consequence of climate change.
Ubiquitin is a tiny regulatory protein that can be present in most eukaryotic cells. It is important for changing the function of other proteins, and it is especially important for protein breakdown and localization inside the cell. Ubiquitin regulates these actions through ubiquitination (attaching to and detaching from a target protein).
University of Notre Dame Associate Professor of Anthropology Lee Gettler and his collaborators have drawn on data collected over more than 30 years from almost 1,000 men in the Philippines to help shed light on the importance of adolescence and father-son experiences to sons' adult testosterone patterns.
The multidisciplinary Zurich research team Liver4Life has succeeded in doing something during a treatment attempt that had never been achieved in the history of medicine until now: it treated an originally damaged human liver in a machine for three days outside a body and then implanted the recovered organ into a cancer patient.
Scientists were able to modify the genetic code of living beings ten years ago thanks to a breakthrough technique called CRISPR-CAS9.
Researchers at UT Southwestern have uncovered a molecular path that allows cells to detect when their lipid supplies are running low, triggering a flurry of activity that avoids starvation.
CRISPR, a gene-editing technique that allows scientists to mend the DNA of human cells almost as easily as using a pair of scissors, has boosted biological and medical research in the last decade.
The lifespan extension caused by a low-protein diet appears to be coordinated by a single hormone.
Prostate cancer that has spread to other regions of the body is commonly treated with hormone treatment, but many individuals develop resistance to it, making their disease more aggressive and potentially fatal.
Most plants strive to preserve resources when they are exposed to circumstances that are excessively dry, salty, or cold.
When faced with conditions that are too dry, salty, or cold, most plants try to conserve resources. They send out fewer leaves and roots and close up their pores to hold in water. If circumstances don't improve, they eventually die.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), commonly known as fatty liver disease, is a prevalent disease frequently seen in obese people. Having high fat content in the liver is detrimental as it is strongly associated with severe health problems like diabetes, high blood pressure, and liver cancer.
The pancreas is a key metabolic regulator. When pancreatic beta cells cease producing enough insulin, blood sugar levels rise dangerously — a phenomenon known as hyperglycemia — thus triggering diabetes.