A hormone is a chemical released by one or more cells that affects cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another.
As the northern hemisphere experiences shorter and colder days, individuals who prefer morning workouts may encounter increased difficulty in getting up and running.
Different cells in the human pancreas play important roles in blood sugar regulation. Neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3) is a gene found in pancreatic cells.
For the first time, Francis Crick Institute researchers have discovered stem cells in the human thymus. These cells provide a possible new target for research into immunological disorders, cancer, and immune system stimulation.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body produces too little or no insulin. Diabetics thus depend on an external supply of this hormone via injection or pump. Researchers led by Martin Fussenegger from the Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering at ETH Zurich in Basel want to make the lives of these people easier and are looking for solutions to produce and administer insulin directly in the body.
During the rainy breeding season, the underwater "conversation" among electric fish changes. Fish revved up to make a match broadcast slightly different signals to advertise their presence and identify compatible mates.
Researchers have developed a synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) that can facilitate the development of a miniature endometrium in a dish for at least two weeks.
Through next-generation sequencing, investigators have identified a mutation in the TMCO3 gene in two sisters with short stature.
Indiana University researcher Daniella Chusyd is studying human aging in an unlikely way: through elephants.
Peptide YY (PYY), a hormone produced by gut endocrine cells that was already known to control appetite, also plays an important role in maintaining the balance of fungi in the digestive system of mammals, according to new research from the University of Chicago.
Neurobiologists from Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University found out differences of educability level and processes of formation of spatial memory of adult male and female rats, that live together in large cages and played with toys.
The unborn baby “remote controls” its mother’s metabolism, resulting in a nutritional tug-of-war between the two. The mother’s body requires the baby to survive, but she also needs enough glucose and fats in her system to be able to deliver the baby, breastfeed, and reproduce again.
Cells “talk” to one another to coordinate crucial biological activities such as immune activation, muscle contraction, hormone release, neuronal firing, and digestion using calcium signaling as a primary mechanism.
Plant roots have their own thermometer to measure the temperature of the soil around them and they adjust their growth accordingly.
Plants provide a home for a wide diversity of microbes, especially in their roots. In turn, these communities can provide important benefits for the host.
A recent study supported by Tokyo Tech’s World Research Hub Initiative discovered that gene expression within the apicoplast, an organelle in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is controlled by melatonin (the circadian signaling hormone) in host blood and intrinsic parasite cues via a factor called ApSigma.
Researchers led by McMaster University professor Gregory Steinberg and postdoctoral research fellow Dongdong Wang have uncovered a key mechanism for promoting weight loss and maintaining the burning of calories during dieting.
An obscure aquatic plant has helped to explain how plants avoid cracking up under the stresses and strains of growth.
The brain and the digestive tract are in constant communication, relaying signals that help to control feeding and other behaviors.
The Lundquist Institute (TLI) announced that its Institute for Translational Genomics and Populations Sciences contributed to a new study published today in Nature Genetics of the DNA of more than 55,000 people worldwide.
A study of more than 55,000 people’s DNA from around the world has given insight into how humans maintain appropriate blood sugar levels after eating, with implications for the current understanding of how the process goes awry in type 2 diabetes.