Insulin Resistance is a condition in which the body does not respond to insulin properly. This is most common in Type II diabetes or associated with obesity, ketoacidosis, infection, and certain rare conditions. Diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood glucose levels requiring 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent hyperglycemia or ketosis.
The sequencing of the human genome promised a revolution in medicine, but scientists soon realized that a genetic blueprint alone does not show the body in action.
Korean researchers have unveiled a novel signaling pathway that fosters aging-related chronic metabolic disorders.
Glutaminase 2 (GLS2) is a master regulator of glutaminolysis. GLS2 converts glutamine to glutamate, thereby playing a role in cellular energy production. GLS2 is abundant in the liver, and is also found in pancreatic β-cells. However, the role of GLS2 in pancreatic islets – in which both ɑ- and β- cells are present – associated with glucose metabolism is currently unknown.
Researchers at IRB Barcelona, the University of Barcelona (UB), VIMM, and the University of Padua unveil the key role of Mitofusin 2 cellular makeup in interconnecting organelles within cells.
The Lundquist Institute (TLI) announced that its Institute for Translational Genomics and Populations Sciences contributed to a new study published today in Nature Genetics of the DNA of more than 55,000 people worldwide.
A study of more than 55,000 people’s DNA from around the world has given insight into how humans maintain appropriate blood sugar levels after eating, with implications for the current understanding of how the process goes awry in type 2 diabetes.
Researchers have demonstrated that the loss of function of two paralogous starch biosynthesis genes increases the amount of resistant starch (RS) in cooked rice.
A team of scientists from the Van Andel Institute and the Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology and Epigenetics uncovered two unique subtypes of insulin-producing beta cells, or ß cells, each having important traits that could potentially be used to better understand and treat Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
Obesity causes many health problems and worsens several chronic illnesses, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, however, some obese people are more susceptible to complications than others.
New research published in the journal Food & Function indicates that daily prune consumption may improve the gut fecal microbiome of postmenopausal women. The fecal microbiome – the ecosystem of microorganisms found in one's fecal matter – reflects an individual's overall gut health. Results from the study showed notable enrichment in bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae. This group of bacteria has been associated with an ability to decrease inflammatory markers in the body and help maintain the integrity of the gut barrier.
Macrophages are immune system cells that control inflammation and tissue function in addition to being crucial in the early response to microbial infection. Since it aids in the repair of damaged tissue, inflammation is a natural physiological response.
There is currently no drug for treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which affects many people with type 2 diabetes and which can result in other serious liver diseases.
A new research paper was published on the cover of Aging (listed as "Aging (Albany NY)" by Medline/PubMed and "Aging-US" by Web of Science) Volume 15, Issue 2, entitled, "Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive cells in a mouse transgenic model does not change β-cell mass and has limited effects on their proliferative capacity."
According to preliminary findings from an ongoing, prospective study headed by Cedars-Sinai researchers, one type of bacteria seen in the gut might contribute to the development of Type 2 diabetes, while another might guard against the condition.
Once considered an inert tissue, fat – or adipose tissue – is now known to play an active role in the body's critical functions by secreting hormones that regulate hunger and body temperature.
A team of researchers led by the University of California, Irvine has discovered that treatment with an extract from the roots of the Rhodiola rosea plant might be effective for helping manage type 2 diabetes, showing promise as a safe and effective non-pharmaceutical alternative.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), commonly known as fatty liver disease, is a prevalent disease frequently seen in obese people. Having high fat content in the liver is detrimental as it is strongly associated with severe health problems like diabetes, high blood pressure, and liver cancer.
Jerry Guintivano, PhD, of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, led an exclusive transcriptome-wide association research that showed substantial changes in B-cells in women with postpartum depression, with pathway observations indicating modified B-cell activation and insulin resistance.
Researchers at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine have created RNA molecules that bind to human pancreatic beta cells, which generate insulin and are destroyed in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients.
In a breakthrough discovery, scientists from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio today reported that inhibiting a liver enzyme in obese mice decreased the rodents' appetite, increased energy expenditure in adipose (fat) tissues and resulted in weight loss.