A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Genetic variations in the immune system of humans may have an impact on the vulnerability to, and severity of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
A study has been launched to understand how the body's immune system responds to COVID-19, including if and when a person could be re-infected with the virus.
Elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide in the air may be associated with a high number of deaths from COVID-19.
Scientists across the globe are rushing to find inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus behind the COVID-19 pandemic.
Researchers from CSIRO have unveiled a new approach to analyzing the genetic codes - or the blueprint - of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.
One of the defining features of COVID-19 is the excessive immune response that can occur in severe cases. This burst of immune overreaction, also called a cytokine storm, damages the lungs and can be fatal.
In recent years, RNA molecules, with the ability to affect or turn off pathogenic genes, have become promising drug candidates in several areas.
The discovery that immune T cells have a spectrum of responsiveness could shed light on how our immune system responds to infections and cancer.
The simplicity of urine sampling has been combined with the excellent sensing abilities of CRISPR to improve diagnostic testing for kidney transplant patients.
Small amounts of breastmilk influence viral populations in the infant's gut and provide a protective effect against potentially pathogenic viruses.
Computational chemist Mahmoud Moradi will develop enhanced, 3D simulations of the molecular dynamics of coronavirus spike glycoproteins to gain better understanding of how the virus binds to human cells.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death around the world. Now, two internationally acclaimed stem cell experts have discovered a large number of abnormal stem cells found in the lungs of COPD patients.
Researchers have found that immune T cells exhibit a range of responsiveness. This finding could offer insights into how the immune system of humans responds to infections and cancer, and what goes wrong in immune diseases.
David McCandlish and Juannan Zhou, both quantitative biologists at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, have designed a new algorithm that has predictive power, providing researchers the ability to observe the way particular genetic mutations combine to make crucial proteins change over the duration of a species’ evolution.
A team of Chinese scientists has reported the high-resolution crystal structure of the main protease (Mpro) of the COVID-19 virus and has identified drugs that may hold promise in combating the virus.
VRAC/LRRC8 chloride channels play a crucial role in the transport of neurotransmitters, amino acids, and cytostatics.
At present, the Nicotiana benthamiana plant is being used as a bio-factory for various experimental vaccines against SARS-COV-2.
In satellite photos of the Earth, clouds of bright green bloom across the surface of lakes and oceans as algae populations explode in nutrient-rich water. From the air, the algae appear to be the primary players in the ecological drama unfolding below.
Created from 13,000 separate images taken by an electron microscope, it reveals in rich detail the structure of the virus.
Noroviruses can be easily transported via fresh fruits and vegetables. This article looks at the methods behind increasing the radiosensitivity of the virus.