According to Spink and Moyer (2011), food fraud refers to 'the deliberate and intentional substitution, addition, tampering, or misrepresentation of food, food ingredients, or packaging; or false or misleading statements made about a product for economic gain.'
However, a study by Robson et al. (2021) showed how definitions of food fraud may vary despite its importance. Nevertheless, food fraud typically involves deceptive practices within the food industry that involve the intentional misrepresentation of food products.
Food fraud is a widespread issue with significant global prevalence and far-reaching impacts. Specifically, food fraud poses risks to public health, consumer trust, and economic stability in many countries and across various industries.
As a result, efforts to combat food fraud increasingly rely on international collaboration, robust regulatory frameworks, and enhanced monitoring and detection systems to safeguard the integrity of the global food supply chain.
Detecting Deception: Scientific Methods in Uncovering Food Fraud
The detection of food fraud relies on analytical techniques that identify and quantify adulterants or verify the authenticity of food products. Techniques such as DNA barcoding are increasingly used. DNA barcoding involves analyzing targeted DNA regions to determine the species (i.e., animal or plant product) present in a food sample, which can reveal any product mislabelling or substitution.
Other commonly used methods to detect food fraud include spectroscopy techniques that can identify characteristic molecular patterns to detect adulterants by using infrared or near-infrared spectroscopy. Chemical fingerprinting, which uses chromatography and mass spectrometry, also creates unique profiles of food samples, thus enabling the comparison of authentic and fraudulent products. Together, these techniques offer valuable information to inform product traceability and ensure the integrity of the food supply chain.
Case Studies: Notorious Instances of Food Fraud
Several notable instances of food fraud have occurred in the last decade, exposing how vulnerable the global food industry can be. In 2013, it was revealed that beef products across Europe were mislabelled and were, in fact, substituted with horse meat. The issue was examined in further detail by Agnoli et al. (2016) and later by Smith and McElwee (2021), with both studies revealing the concern of European consumers with the authenticity of the meat as well as how the scandal was a complex issue involving insider people in business at various points in the production chain.
Other notable examples include the continuous adulteration of olive oil, which has been found to be diluted with cheaper oils or colorants that have been added even as recently as October 2023 in France. Similarly, honey adulteration involving the dilution of pure honey with cheaper syrups or the addition of artificial sweeteners has become increasingly common. Honey adulteration not only compromised the quality and authenticity of the honey but also posed health risks to consumers with allergies or specific dietary requirements.
In all instances, analytical techniques were used to uncover fraudulent products, trace the origin of the products, and identify the fraudulent practices.
For instance, experts were able to uncover the fraud by detecting inconsistencies in the composition and origin of the honey samples by using isotopic analysis and pollen analysis. However, as the 2021 study by Smith and McElwee emphasized, lax penalties and the lack of enforced regulations are weak deterrents for those committing food fraud.
The Impact of Food Fraud on Public Health and the Economy
The health risks associated with food fraud are due to the potential presence of allergens and toxic substances with impacts ranging from acute allergenic responses to potentially lethal effects. Aside from allergens, the intentional addition of substances like unauthorized colors, pesticides, or industrial chemicals in counterfeit or adulterated food products can lead to acute or chronic toxicity, endangering consumer health. These health risks underscore the importance of regulatory measures and the use of detection methods to prevent and mitigate the consequences of food fraud.
For consumers, purchasing fraudulent or adulterated food products can result in financial losses as they unknowingly pay for inferior or misrepresented goods. Businesses suffer reputational damage and financial losses when their products are associated with fraud, leading to decreased consumer confidence, deteriorated trust, and diminished market share. The global market is also affected as food fraud undermines fair competition, distorts pricing mechanisms, and hampers overall market transparency, ultimately impacting economic stability and trade relationships.
In recent years, the extent of food fraud has been gradually revealed thanks to emerging tracking and identification technologies in recent years. A 2017 operation by Europol and Interpol seized 9,800 tonnes, 26.4 million liters, and 13 million items of counterfeited and harmful food and drink products, with a total value of around 230 million Euros (Europol, 2017). However, these operations are uncommon since they are financially costly and require international cooperation.
Regulatory Frameworks and Global Efforts to Combat Food Fraud
To prevent, detect, and mitigate fraud in food production, international regulatory bodies and national agencies have established a range of regulations, standards, and initiatives. For instance, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) designed standards, including ISO 22000, focusing on food safety management systems, and ISO 22005, addressing food traceability. Initiatives also play a key role, including the Food Fraud Initiative by the US Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) and the European Union's Food Fraud Network, which report instances of food fraud.
Regulatory efforts aim to safeguard public health, uphold industry integrity, and maintain consumer confidence in the food market. However, various regulatory challenges remain, some of which were reviewed in a 2021 study by Robson et al. The study discusses how food fraud remains undefined by the EU, resulting in confounded standardizations in policies, which is exacerbated by the lack of detailed guidance and the lack of integrity within frameworks.
Advancements and Future Directions in Food Fraud Detection
Looking ahead, the future of food fraud detection will rely increasingly on emerging technologies and improved methodologies. The use of next-generation sequencing techniques, as well as infrared and Raman spectroscopy, will enable more accurate DNA barcoding, allowing for the identification of species in complex food matrices. Similarly, the integration of blockchain technology and IoT (Internet of Things) devices in supply chain management will improve traceability to allow real-time monitoring and verification of product authenticity when monitoring food production.
However, certain challenges remain in the fight against food fraud, such as understanding the underlying patterns of food fraud. For instance, Brooks et al. (2021) found that issues such as the COVID-19 pandemic and Brexit increased the demand for food, which, combined with increased industry inspections, weakened governance, audits, and ever-increasing pressure on the food industry, contributed to more instances of food fraud.
Conclusion: A Call for Awareness and Action
Food fraud represents a global issue undermining the authenticity and safety of food products. It poses health risks to consumers, leads to economic losses for businesses, and requires robust regulations, advanced analytical techniques, and international collaboration to detect, prevent, and mitigate its impact on the food supply chain. Understanding how and why food fraud occurs is a crucial element in improving global food production amid a rapidly changing environment and increasing demand for food from a growing human population.
- Agnoli, L., Capitello, R., De Salvo, M., Longo, A., & Boeri, M. (2016). Food fraud and consumers' choices in the wake of the horsemeat scandal. British Food Journal, 118(8), 1898–1913. https://doi.org/10.1108/bfj-04-2016-0176
- Brooks, C. P., Parr, L., Smith, J. M., Buchanan, D., Snioch, D., & Hebishy, E. (2021). A review of food fraud and food authenticity across the food supply chain, with an examination of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and Brexit on food industry. Food Control, 130, 108171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108171
- Europol. (2017). EUR 230 MILLION WORTH OF FAKE FOOD AND BEVERAGES SEIZED IN GLOBAL OPSON OPERATION TARGETING FOOD FRAUD. 5th December 2018, from www.europol.europa.eu/.../eur-230-million-worth-of-fake-food-and-beverages-seized-in-global-opson-operation-targeting-food-fraud
- Robson, K., Dean, M., Haughey, S. A., & Elliott, C. T. (2021). A comprehensive review of food fraud terminologies and food fraud mitigation guides. Food Control, 120, 107516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107516
- Smith, R., & McElwee, G. (2021). The "horse-meat" scandal: illegal activity in the food supply chain. Supply Chain Management, 26(5), 565–578. https://doi.org/10.1108/scm-08-2019-0292 Spink, J., & Moyer, D. C. (2011). Defining the public health threat of food fraud. Journal of Food Science, 76(9). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02417.x