Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
A research team revealed that neurotransmitter release in the brain is impaired in patients with schizophrenia who possess a rare, single-gene mutation.
A new study has unraveled a causal gene (Necdin, NDN) in autism model mice that exhibit the chromosomal abnormality known as copy number variation.
Human Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common form of hereditary deaf-blindness. Sufferers can be deaf from birth, suffer from balance disorders, and eventually lose their eyesight as the disease progresses.
Dehydrated plant seeds can lay dormant for long periods--over 1,000 years in some species--before the availability of water can trigger germination. This protects the embryonic plant inside from a variety of environmental stresses until conditions are favorable for growth and survival.
Plant-based meats are similar to real beef in their taste, along with the 13 nutritional items listed on their labels making them appear equivalent to meat.
Mitosis, the mechanism of cell division, is an age-old process. Yet, the process has not been fully understood or replicated.
When we think of the brain, we think of neurons. But much of the brain is made of non-neuronal cells called glial cells, which help regulate brain development and function.
Albumin activates a proton channel which allows sperm to penetrate and fertilize an egg and white blood cells to secrete large amounts of inflammatory mediators.
Scientists at Weill Cornell Medicine have developed a computational technique that greatly increases the resolution of atomic force microscopy, a specialized type of microscope that "feels" the atoms at a surface.
The origin of rare, severe muscle disease has been uncovered by an international team of researchers headed by the University of Bonn (Germany).
AZoLifeSciences speaks to Sean Hoban and Colin Khoury about the decline in natures genetic diversity and how we can work to protect it.
A new study analyzing the association between an individual's genetics (genotype) and their observable characteristics resulting from the interaction of genetics and the environment (phenotype), contributes new knowledge to the understanding of human complex traits and diseases.
Cells have to constantly adapt to their surroundings in order to survive. A sudden increase in the environmental levels of an osmolyte, such as salt, causes cells to lose water and shrink. In a matter of seconds, they activate a mechanism that allows them to recover their initial water volume and avoid dying.
Skeletal muscle makes up 30% to 40% of body weight and serves multiple functions like heat production and energy metabolism.
The microscopic algae that live inside and provide nutrients to their reef-building coral hosts may be evolving in tandem with the corals they inhabit, so each partner is fine-tuned to meet one another's needs.
Human-driven global change is challenging the scientific community to understand how marine species might adapt to predicted environmental conditions in the near-future (e.g. hypoxia, ocean warming, and ocean acidification).
The biological clock is present in almost all cells of an organism. As more and more evidence emerges that clocks in certain organs could be out of sync, there is a need to investigate and reset these clocks locally.
Inside the nuclei of cells, the genome is tightly organized (packaged). This three-dimensional (3D) genome organization is basic because it controls gene expression.
A gene called GAS2 plays a key role in normal hearing, and its absence causes severe hearing loss, according to a study led by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
An abnormal accumulation of carbohydrates—starches and sugars—in the kernels and leaves of a mutant line of corn can be traced back to a single misregulated gene, and this finding provides insights into how the plant responds to stress.