Lipids are a broad group of naturally-occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.
Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a severe genetic skin disorder characterized by thick white, brown, or dark brown patches on the skin covering a newborn's entire body. HI has a low incidence of 1 per 300,000 live births but comes with the highest mortality rate among skin conditions. It is caused by a mutation in the ABCA12 gene, which codes for a protein involved in transporting lipids necessary for the formation of the skin barrier. Such protein shortage leads to a weaker epidermal barrier.
A new study led by researchers at Harvard Medical School illuminates how the brain becomes aware that there is an infection in the body.
Textbooks will tell you that in dividing cells, the production of new DNA peaks during the S-phase, while production of other macromolecules, such as proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides, continues at more or less the same level.
A team of Purdue University scientists led by Shihuan Kuang has received a $2.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to define the role of lipid droplets in muscle stem cell function, a study with implications in both humans and livestock.
Obesity causes many health problems and worsens several chronic illnesses, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, however, some obese people are more susceptible to complications than others.
A synthetic biosensor that mimics properties found in cell membranes and provides an electronic readout of activity could lead to a better understanding of cell biology, development of new drugs, and the creation of sensory organs on a chip capable of detecting chemicals, similar to how noses and tongues work.
There is currently no drug for treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which affects many people with type 2 diabetes and which can result in other serious liver diseases.
Most cancer diagnostic procedures, like endoscopies, biopsies, and mammograms, are stressful and invasive. Although blood samples may be a less unpleasant option, only a few forms of the disease can as of now be diagnosed this way.
A genetic mutation in the SPTSSA gene is identified as the cause of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia, a rare disease that causes progressive weakness, stiffness and spasticity in the lower extremities, according to a study, "SPTSSA variants alter sphingolipid synthesis and cause a complex hereditary spastic paraplegia," published in Brain on on Jan. 30.
Using a specialized MRI sensor, MIT researchers have shown that they can detect light deep within tissues such as the brain.
In the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells—which are the immature stem cells that produce all the blood cell lineages—the cell protein retinoid X receptor (RXR) is an important element.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have created a laboratory-grown three-dimensional "organoid" model that is derived from human tissue and designed to advance understanding about how early stages of cancer develop at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) — the point where the digestive system's food tube meets the stomach.
The University of Konstanz’s Plant Physiology and Biochemistry research group has discovered previously unrecognized molecular mechanisms by which plants acclimatize to their environment—vital basic knowledge in times of climate change.
AZoLifeSciences sat down with Tom Kwoka, Senior Application Scientist - GC/MS at PerkinElmer, and Alex Maitain, GC/MS Cannabis Analysis at PerkinElmer, to discuss the benefits of analyzing residual solvents and terpenes from cannabis and hemp products by Headspace GC/MS analysis.
Cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibition therapy, have been attracting attention in recent years as new methods for treating cancer.
The mTOR protein is important for cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Its activity fluctuates according to nutrient availability and growth factors like hormones.
Membrane proteins are vital therapeutic targets. They exist between the interior and exterior of human cells. Some of them, known as “transporters,” transport substances into and out of the cellular environment.
Chronic heart failure induces dysfunction in the cell’s powerhouses, which is caused in part by an excess of an essential intermediate compound in energy production. Compensating for this by supplementing the diet could be a potential technique for treating heart failure.
Most people do not realize that fatty acids can be found in a nutritious salad. Although fatty acids, lipids, and fats may seem unappealing, they are essential to human life and to the plants that are consumed.
Professor Stefan Mecking from the University of Konstanz’s Department of Chemistry and Doctoral Candidate Natalie Schunck have now discovered a means to significantly increase the efficiency of the process of upgrading sustainable raw materials.