Ubiquitin is a small regulatory protein that has been found in almost all cells (''ubiquitously'') with nuclei (eukaryotes). It directs proteins to recycling and other functions.
An international research team has clarified the regulatory mechanism of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (*1) in recognizing and repairing DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light.
Research into Alzheimer's disease has long focused on understanding the role of two key proteins, beta amyloid and the tau protein. Found in tangles in patients' brain tissue, a pathological form of the tau protein contributes to propagating the disease in the brain.
Researchers reported the discovery of a new enzyme, called UCH37, that controls the waste management system of a cell.
A fresh new look at an old technique in protein biochemistry has shown that it should be reintroduced to the spectroscopy toolkit.
In a healthy brain, the multistep waste clearance process known as autophagy routinely removes and degrades damaged cell components - including malformed proteins like tau and toxic mitochondria.
According to a study, failures in a quality control system that defends protein-building fidelity in cells can result in motor neuron degeneration.
Despite immense efforts to improve pharmacology methods, over three-quarters of all human proteins still remain beyond the reach of therapeutic advancement.
The idea of the cell as a city is a common introduction to biology, conjuring depictions of the cell's organelles as power plants, factories, roads, libraries, warehouses and more.
Researchers at TMIMS have revealed that PINK1 (a serine/threonine kinase) and Parkin (a ubiquitin ligating enzyme: E3) work together to ubiquitylate the outer membrane proteins of damaged mitochondria to induce selective autophagy called mitophagy.
Chinese researchers recently discovered a protein quality control mechanism called "reubiquitination".
Essential processes in mammalian cells are controlled by proteins called transcription factors. For example, the transcription factor HIF-1 is triggered by a low-oxygen situation to cause the cell to adapt to decreased oxygen.
A group of scientists from CECAD, the Cluster of Excellence 'Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases,' have found a mechanism by which neurodevelopmental diseases concerning neurons can be explained: The loss of a certain enzyme, UBE2K, impeded the differentiation of stem cells by silencing the expression of genes important for neuronal differentiation and, therefore, the development and generation of neurons.
Cellular proteostasis is regulated by a crucial proteolytic machine called proteasome via selective degradation of ubiquitylated proteins.
An international team of researchers has investigated how a cell's own "protein shredder" can be specifically programmed to fight cancer.
An international study, headed by the University of Bonn and Ulm University, has analyzed how the “protein shredder” of a cell can be particularly programmed to combat cancer.