A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Researchers from the University of Colorado School of Medicine identified specific genetic biomarkers that reveal who is infected with COVID-19.
Once an infection is under control, the body normally uses a biochemical messenger known as TGFβ to downgrade its immune response.
A study conducted by a consortium of Brazilian researchers has demonstrated that a hyperimmune serum consisting of purified antibody fragments produced in horses may be an efficient approach to combat covid-19.
Scientists from DZNE revealed that certain viral diseases can contribute to neurodegeneration.
Nearly half of our DNA has been written off as junk, the discards of evolution: sidelined or broken genes, viruses that got stuck in our genome and were dismembered or silenced, none of it relevant to the human organism or human evolution.
Circadian clocks, which regulate most of the physiological processes of living beings over a rhythm of about 24 hours, are one of the most fundamental biological mechanisms.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) particularly attacks CD4 lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell considered to be the conductor of the immune system.
Researchers identified a greatly potent monoclonal antibody that aims at the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.
Over a decade ago, UCLA physician-scientists began using a pioneering gene therapy they developed to treat children born with a rare and deadly immune system disorder. They now report that the effects of the therapy appear to be long-lasting, with 90% of patients who received the treatment eight to 11 years ago still disease-free.
Researchers from The University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science have found that infection with the measles virus activates not one but two different branches of the innate immune system.
Recent research by scientists from the University of Illinois demonstrates a process that halts the herpes simplex virus 1 from inducing severe brain damage and death.
Scientists from the Karolinska Institutet discovered certain metabolic mechanisms that SARS-CoV-2 employs to attack lung tissue.
In a study of patients with COVID-19 being treated in intensive care units, people who mounted only a low antibody response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus faced a higher risk of dying.
A previously unknown virus that can infect humans and cause disease has been identified by scientists in Japan.
A new study by University of Minnesota Medical School researchers is revealing that some people who received an mRNA vaccination for COVID-19 have greater immune responses compared to others.
Hepatitis C virus thrives in humans for years, damaging the liver by causing chronic inflammation, eventually resulting in cirrhosis and liver cancer.
An article by Brazilian researchers published in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity elucidates one of the mechanisms whereby zika virus causes neurological complications in adult patients and microcephaly in fetuses. The discovery paves the way for future research to develop drugs that combat the virus.
Around the world, honeybees are dying in large numbers. This die-off is in part because of a deadly virus that can kill bees or impair their ability to return to the hives after foraging. But in a study published September 28 in the journal iScience, researchers show that a cheap and naturally occurring chemical compound could prevent or reverse the effects of the virus in bees.
The University of Kent's School of Biosciences and the Institute of Medical Virology at Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, have identified a protein that may critically contribute to severe forms of COVID-19.
Rift Valley fever virus causes economically devastating outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in livestock such as sheep, goats and cattle. These mosquito-borne outbreaks lead to infection in people working with dead or dying animals, sometimes causing hundreds of human cases and dozens of deaths.