Breast cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare. When breast cancer cells spread to other parts of the body, they are called metastases. There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer. Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breast, like the ducts or the lobes.
Researchers at Mayo Clinic have combined results from a functional test measuring the effect of inherited variants in the BRCA2 breast and ovarian cancer gene with clinical information from women who received genetic testing to determine the clinical importance of many BRCA2 variants of uncertain significance (VUS).
In the field of structural biology, certain molecules are so uncommon that they can only be captured with a special set of tools.
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has identified a novel mechanism by which a type of cancer immunotherapy known as CTLA-4 blockade can disable suppressive immune cells to aid the destruction of certain tumors.
One of the fundamental principles of biology is the fact that cells are motile and make contact with one another.
Cancer cells and immune cells share something in common: They both love sugar. Sugar is an important nutrient. All cells use sugar as a vital source of energy and building blocks. For immune cells, gobbling up sugar is a good thing, since it means getting enough nutrients to grow and divide for stronger immune responses. But cancer cells use sugar for more nefarious ends.
According to a new study, a technology that is extensively used by commercial genetic testing firms is “extremely unreliable” in identifying very rare variants.
New research has revealed a new role of the steroid receptor coactivator 3, also called SRC-3/NCOA3.
Research groups at the University of Helsinki and Institut Jacques Monod, Paris, discovered a new molecular mechanism that promotes cell migration. The discovery sheds light on the mechanisms that drive the uncontrolled movement of cancer cells and also revises the 'textbook view' of cell migration.
Recycling cans and bottles is a good practice. It helps keep the planet clean. The same is true for recycling within cells in the body. Each cell has a way of cleaning out waste in order to regenerate newer, healthier cells. This "cell recycling" is called autophagy.
New research and analysis appearing in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published by Elsevier, highlights the barriers cancer survivors face in maintaining a healthy diet, as well as the role nutrition may play in cancer risk and treatment.
There are many mechanisms by which the body responds to foreign invaders. One of these involves the T-cells of the immune system, which have a number of different proteins on their surface called "checkpoint proteins."
Scientists from Indiana University have discovered how breast cancer cells evade immune cells to survive.
Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute, the UCL Cancer Institute, and the Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence have identified genetic changes in tumours which could be used to predict if immunotherapy drugs would be effective in individual patients.
Breast cancer could be identified more precisely than existing methods using blood specimens and exclusive proteomics-based technology.
What makes cancer cells different from ordinary cells in our bodies? Can these differences be used to strike at them and paralyze their activity?
Certain anchor proteins inhibit a key metabolic driver that plays an important role in cancer and developmental brain disorders.
CAR T therapy has transformed the treatment for leukemia. Regrettably, the therapy is not effective enough to treat solid tumors, like neuroblastoma.
Genetic inheritance affects the likelihood of developing breast cancer. Some genes are already known to increase cancer risk; other genes are suspected to be involved, but not to what extent. It is crucial to clarify this issue to improve prevention since it opens the way to more personalized follow-up and screening programs.
The team led by Bruno Silva Santos, Principal Investigator and Deputy Director of the Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes (iMM) and Professor at the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, discovered that the functions of a subtype of white blood cells - gamma delta T cells - are regulated by metabolic resources, namely sugars and fat.
Cells need energy to survive and thrive. Generally, if oxygen is available, cells will oxidize glucose to carbon dioxide, which is very efficient, much like burning gasoline in your car. However, even in the presence of adequate oxygen, many malignant cells choose instead to ferment glucose to lactic acid, which is a much less efficient process.