Free tyrosine and acryl groups are covalently crosslinked by the water-soluble photoinitiator ruthenium using visible light (400–450 nm). Ruthenium has been tested on a variety of materials, including gelatin, silk fibroin, methacrylated hyaluronic acid, methacrylated collagen type I, and PEGDA.


  • For tissue engineering, cell culture, and bioprinting applications where fine-tuning the mechanical properties of the substrate is necessary, the ruthenium visible light photocrosslinking kit is the best choice
  • For more than 200 mL of bioinks or hydrogels, the kit includes enough photoinitiator
  • Ruthenium is a photoinitiator that utilizes visible light photocrosslinking (400-450 nm) to covalently crosslink free tyrosine and acryl groups
  • Ruthenium photoinitiator has been tested on collagen type I, gelatin, silk fibroin, methacrylated hyaluronic acid, methacrylated gelatin, methacrylated collagen type I and PEGDA
  • Ruthenium is water soluble and yields better cell cytocompatibility, and crosslinking efficiency
  • Increasing Visible light intensity from 3–100 mW/cm2 using Ruthenium did not significantly decrease cell viability from 90%
  • Increasing Ruthenium concentration by 10 times (10×) did not decrease cell viability from 90%
  • Ruthenium is red/yellow/orange in color and will change the color of the solutions, hydrogels, or printed constructs


  • It is believed that this Ruthenium photocrosslinking kit is non-sterile. It is advised to sterile filter the system or add antibiotics to the cell culture setup
  • Ruthenium and sodium persulfate must be resuspended in their entirety (separately) in order to be filtered sterilely through tiny 0.2-micron button filters (separately)
  • Within two weeks, use the sterile photoinitiator
  • As shown in Table 1, the Ruthenium Visible Light Photocrosslinking Kit consists of two parts.

Source: Advanced BioMatrix

Item Catalog Number Package Size
Ruthenium Photoinitiator #5246 200 mg
Sodium Persulfate Photoinitiator #5247 1 gram



  • The product is shipped at room temperature. Place the kit in a cool, dry place
  • Measure out the necessary quantity of powder for solubilization
  • Use the ruthenium and sodium persulfate within two weeks of solubilization
  • At room temperature, dry powder that has not been dissolved lasts longer than a year

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